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LABRST 1C03 (126)

Lecture - Race, Class, Gender - 2014-02-25

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Labour Studies
Sandra Colavecchia

Race, Class, Gender • Definition o race and racialization o whiteness – whiteness is often the category that is interrogated the least; considered the neutral colour; people often talked of people of colour as if white is neutral; most disputed (lots of discussion to who is white or isn't); as long as you talk about white people seen as not talking about race  "the neutral colour" – people don't spend a long time spelling out what white means (no white culture); very gray area as to who is white (some people who were white considered at white sometimes and not at other times) o sex and gender – gender are the roles assigned to the sexes; what it means to be a man or woman is gender; as culture change gender roles change as well (constructed in different societies in different ways); overlap between gender and work is very clear (some stuff seen as men work; others women's work); roles have changed over last 30-40 years; up until 1960's sense was that they should be in the home; once married, were supposed to stop working and if didn't they were to stop working when they had kids; industrialization hit (before: work done within family unit; little separation between working and home world, women had a role; after industrialization there is a physical separation between world of home and work); men seen as failures if not providing for family; much overlap between race and gender (betrayal of immigrant workers like Chinese men (seen as unmanly because they were submissive to the boss), others seen unmanly because they couldn't control themselves (drinking, money, etc)); on the job immigrants seen as unmanly, off the job seen as dangerous • historic trends o head-taxes and exclusion – head tax on Chinese immigrants (even children had to pay it); had to have this to make sure you paid tax; lots of immigrant workers were put in debt because of this; 1943-1968?... Chinese banned; also restrictions on what people could do (owning certain property, vote, testify in court; law banning Chinese owned businesses from hiring white women (passing law because convinced they would take advantage of them sexually); also prejudice coming from Eastern Europe (until 1950's considered foreigners) o 1967 points system – change in immigration policies/whose coming into the country happens in the 1960's; point system is an attempt to be more neutral as to who comes in (assign points based on education, training, etc); this has a clear affect (after point system then start to see more Chinese immigrating rather than European; get greater diversification during 1970-80's; last 40 years more people from different places coming to Canada o era of multiculturalism – policies with time did not change with admission; in 1970's there was a clear attempt to change attitudes and culture and try to celebrate diversification; Pierre Trudeau (prime minister late 1960's to late 80's); tried to be more accepting through stuff like festivals etc; was a considerable backlash against new waves of immigration because of this; 1980's-90;s you get steady waves of new immigrants coming in, in a sustained way; significant of these later years is the diversification as to who is coming into the country; from labour studies prospective there was enormous change in composition of workplace; before blue collared men, after: not common image with turn of 20th century; this trend will continue in the future o demographic trends - fertility rates drop off post 1960's (so future workers must be immigrants); growth of white immigration over the last few years (diversity still the same but large amount of white people now) • colour-coded labour market – in terms of backlash Canada has been ok; when it comes to economic integration however to people who are racialized, Canada's record is much more problematic; immigrants much more willing to live in bad conditions etc if they are offered a job; though most immigrants get higher scores for willingness to work but have worse conditions o income disparities – racialized men making 75 cents to the dollar to white men typically; average racialized women makes 55 cents to the dollar for every 75 cents racialized men make??; white immigrants to racialized immigrants the gap is even greater o race + gender disparities –lots of these minorities aren't only facing these problem because they are immigrants but because they are of different races; racialized women and men disparities are quite vast o economic integration? – Race, Class, Gender – Part 2 • supply-side causes – focus on issues and things that workers do o education and credentials – education rates for women are not as advantageous in terms of the labour market; women tend to take fields that are not the high yields; doesn't look at why women choose they jobs or the difficulties to get into these fields; even in fields where women have credentials they are not recognized as much as men; even on supply side credentials are not the same o networking – supply side cause; when it comes to building number of contacts and connections, women and visible minorities are at a big disadvantage; harder to get work without the network; Old Boys network (called this because mostly made of old boys, and if you go to the club women aren't very welco
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