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Lecture 18

Lecture 18

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Life Sciences
Gautam Ullal

Lecture 18February2212801 PMTodays Topics HomeworkMost Important Facts Covered Today Glia Cells divided into Microglia and MacrogliaMicroglia 4 subtypes protect the CNSMacroglia 2 subtypesGlia Cells10of the entire cells in the nervous system are neurons90of the cells in the entire nervous system are Glia cellsMicro GliaTrauma or hemorrhage lead to the brain being damaged due the infiltration of the brain by cells and other blood cellsThese cells can be very toxic to the brain so microglia cells engulf these substances via a process called phagocytosisMicroglia also releaseneurotrophicfacts that are important in nerve cell repair It is a peptide that Takes care of the neuron while helping through development repair protection and synapse formationAstrocyteMost common star shaped glia cellsThey are the major contributor to the BBB system TJNeurovascular network formicroregulationof blood flowRelease neurotrophic factorsAstrocytes in thevisual cortexshow robust calcium currentsand orientation sensitivityThey clear the synaptic cleft of excess neurotransmittersThis is done by taking the neurotransmitter from the synaptic cleft storing them in itself and sending it back to the presynaptic terminalGliaNeuron Symbiosis1Neurotransmitters are released from the presynaptic neuronThis neurotransmitter also activates the neighbouring astrocyte 2along with the postsynaptic cleft activation of the astrocyte releases calcium which in turn releases neurotrophic factorsThis strengthens the synapse3Astrocutes in neuronal K hommeostasisAs the firing in a neuron increases there is an accumulation of K ions inside the synapseThe excess K is buffered by astrocytes which then transport them to a blood vesselIf the astrocutes are not functional there will be a built up of a potassium which is neurotoxicTraumaAbnormal AstrocyteLIFE SCI 2C03 Page 1
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