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global diversity outlook.docx

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Department
Life Sciences
Course
LIFESCI 2H03
Professor
Luc Bernier
Semester
Winter

Description
March 20 , 2013 Life Sci 2H03: Environmental Life Sciences Global Biodiversity Outlook What is the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MEA)? - called for by the UN Secreatary-General Kofi Annan in 2000 - objective of the MEA was to assess:  contribution of ecosystems to human well-being  consequences of ecosystem change for human well-being  scientific basis to enhance their sustainable use  based on a collective of studies done before  published in 2005 Ecosystem Services in Decline - ecosystem provide fresh water - pollination - capacity of agricultural systems to provide food for everyone with processes such as desertification leading to less land to produce crops Healthy Ecosystems: Foundation for Human Well-Being - ecosystem with low biodiversity: ability to provide a natural flow of energy is embedded when a specie disappear - in terms of the ability of the planet to filter our pollution: providing water and ability of the ecosystem to accommodate increasing word population - with increasing needs and population creating pressure on the ecosystem th - started in the 18 century - particularly in the developing countries - increasing demand for food - pressures are drivers of change , implications - we can generate models of what is happening in terms of the changes and what are the impacts on biodiversity - impacts on ecosystem services leads to more socioeconomic changes - feedback that is happening - what can be done at the socioeconomic level that would mediate the impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem services Consumption of Resources and Humanity’s Growing Footprint - increasing - we have exceed the capacity of our planet to provide these services - unequal distribution on demand of humans - some controls are using far less of their share - exceeded by about 20% of what the planet is actually able to provide - by increasing demographic pressure and the levels of consumption is leading to a decrease in biodiversity and the ability of ecosystems to provide goods we depend on - impact on different drivers on biodiversity - at the rate the drivers are modifying, in the future we see a very rapid increase of the impact - even the most remote systems are impacted Biodiversity Loss: Disrupts Ecosystem Functions - ecosystems more vulnerable to:  shocks and disturbances  less resilient  cannot provide the society with the necessary resources - damage from floods are more severe Loss of Wetlands in Mississippi Basin - as wetlands disappear, the amount of nitrogen being discharge has been increasing - same effect in phosphorous - impact of hurricane Katrina - as a result the fisheries in the Golf of Mexico are collapsing - low oxygen dead zone Loss of Primary Forest since 2000 - 6 million hectares/year - net losses encountered in South
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