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WEEK 1 (Sept 9, 11, 12) Lecture Notes - LIFESCI 2N03

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Life Sciences
Danny M.Pincivero

LIFESCI 2N03 Introduction (1) September 9, 2013 Kinesiology  Kinesiology – the science of human movement  Kinesiology Act, 2007, S.O. 2007, Chapter 10, Schedule O  Scope of practice – the practice of kinesiology is the assessment of human movement and performance, and its rehabilitation and management to maintain, rehabilitate or enhance movement and performance  College of Kinesiologists of Ontario  Regulated Health Professions Act, 1992 o Established health professions regulated by provincial government and colleges o Controlled acts  Regulated Health Professions, Ontario; Ministry of Health and Long Term Care o 23 self-regulated health professions Physiology  Physiology – the science of the functions of the living organism and its components and the chemical and physical processes involved (Tabers Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary)  “In human physiology, we are concerned with the specific characteristics and mechanisms of the human body that make it a living being. The very fact that we remain alive is almost beyond our own control, for hunger makes us seek food, and fear makes us seek refuge. Sensations of cold make us provide warmth, and other forces cause us to seek fellowship and to reproduce. Thus, the human being is actually an automation, and the fact that we are sensing, feeling, and knowledgeable beings is part of this automatic sequence of life; these special attributes allow us to exist under widely varying conditions that otherwise would make life impossible (Guyton & Hall, Textbook of Medical Physiology, 1996)  Importance of Physiology o Improves the lives of people (or other animals) o How? o Disease and injury management, human performance improvement  What is the difference between “physical activity” and “exercise”? Physical Activity Continuum  Exercise Physiology-Related Organizations o American Physiology Society (www.the- o American College of Sports Medicine ( o National Strength and Conditioning Association ( o Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology (  Establish 1967 as Canadian Association of Sports Sciences  Certifications:  Certified Personal TrainerM  Certified Exercise PhysiologistTM 1 LIFESCI 2N03 Nutrition  Latin derivative, nutrition, nourish  All the processes involved in the taking in and utilization of food substances by which growth repair, and maintenance of activities in the body as a whole or in any of its parts are accomplished  Includes ingestion, digestion, absorption and metabolism (assimilation)  Some nutrients are capable of being stored by the body in various forms and drawn upon when the food intake is not sufficient  Food – any material that provides the nutritive requirements of an organism to maintain growth and physical well being Social Welfare Economic prosperity/  Some tissues remodel at a faster rate than others; all security tissues require certain nutrients to remodel  What role does food play in the world?  Food, Science and World Peace o Norman Borlaug (Mar 25, 1914-Sept 12, 2009); Geopolitics Armed conflicts 1970 Nobel Peace Prize  Invented a new strain of wheat (dwarf) which was disease resistant and generated high yields to combat world hunger  Less susceptible to breakage  Exported the new strain to Central America, Middle East, India, Pakistan, Africa  Importance of Nutrition o Can prevent disease 1. Diseases caused by nutrient deficiency  scurvy (bones become soft; cured by citrus fruits, vitamin C), goiter, rickets 2. Diseases influenced by nutrition  chronic diseases such as heart disease (due to trans fats, saturated fats, cholesterol levels) 3. Diseases in which nutrition plays a role (not a direct link)  osteoarthritis, osteoporosis (conditions that affect bones, joints; nutrition plays a role, but there are many factors that lead to their development)  Nutrition and Obesity o Increase in obesity rates as age increases o Can argue that caloric intake has increased slightly since 1978 to 2004, but it is only one factor  Note: EIN E Out EStored o EOut= metabolic combustion  We eat the way we do because we are influenced 1. Physiological Hunger  Hormones (insulin, leptin) 2. Sensory Stimulation a. Food flavor – taste and smell b. Texture – feel of food; crisp, chewy, smooth  Fat substitutes sometimes added into food to enhance texture; eg/ in the past, titanium dioxide was added to enhance skim milks texture without adding fat 2 LIFESCI 2N03 3. Personal Preference 4. Habits (eg/ 3 meals per day) 5. Ethnic Heritage – one of the strongest influences on our eating habits/patterns a. Cultural beliefs and traditions  Eg/ Rhinoceros beetle – rich in protein and vitamin A; has nutrients, some cultures eat it, but we wouldn’t consider it b. Religion – established rules 6. Social Interactions 7. Availability, convenience and economy  Eg/ Sale 8. Positive and negative associations – commercial advertising 9. Emotions  Eg/ Comfort – instinctive for newborns a. Food cravings b. Beta-endorphins (popular theory for feelings of pleasure) c. Pica – craving for non-food items (dirt, clay); occurs in pregnant women 10. Values 11. Body weight and image 12. Nutrition and health benefits Sports Supplements  Global market value, 2009 – US $4.6 billion (does not include sports drinks, US largest consumer, 2/3 in world) 1. Sports Drink o Provides carbohydrates and fluid – enhance exercise performance and recovery o In Canada 2009, valued at $423 million o Eg/ Gatorade and Powerade 2. Sports Food a. Typically found in bar format b. Nutrient dense and leverages the functional food proposition; provides health benefits that go beyond their nutritional value c. Whey and soy (protein) are dominant ingredients d. In Canada, 2009, sales at $85.4 million 3. Sports Supplements  Objectives – build muscle tissue, increase energy stores/utilization, decrease body fat  Forms – tablets, powders, ready-to-drink  Typical ingredients – soy protein, whey protein, creatine, L-carnitine (decrease body fat by burning fat) and amino acids (does not include sports drinks)  Market share: Canada, 2009 = $114 million Terminology  Nutrient – any substance in food that the body can use to obtain energy, synthesis tissues or regulate physiological/physical functions  Alcohol – contains calories in the form of Ethanol, a carbon compound that is easily converted to fat, but is not a macronutrient; not considered food  Essential nutrient – a substance that must be ingested because the body cannot make it or adequate amounts of it  Macronutrient – a nutrient that is needed in relatively large amounts in the diet (carbohydrates, fats and proteins o EIN  Micronutrient – a nutrient that is needed in relatively small amounts in the diet (vitamins and minerals) o Do not carry calorie content; allows body to harness energy from Macronutrients  Organic – in chemistry, any compound that contains carbon, except carbon compounds (carbon dioxide)  “Organic” Food – food grown without use of fertilizers, hormones, antibiotics etc 3 LIFESCI 2N03 o Must meet standards of the Canadian Organic Products Regulation’s – covers:  Crop production  Livestock production  Processing  Cleaners, disinfectants, sanitizers  Health care products  Eg/ Soil and crop nutrition – over 100 different substances regulated - plants need nutrients from soil  Bone Meal Standards – permitted only if guaranteed free of specified risk materials including the skull, brain, trigeminal ganglia (nerves attached to the brain), eyes, tonsils, spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia (nerves attached to the spinal cord) of cattle aged 30 months or older; and the distal ileum (portion of the small intestine) of cattle of all ages o Needed for calcium (nutrient for plants)  Companies can get waivers from the government that allow them to market as organic even if they do not follow a regulation, if they can demonstrate that it would be financially burdensome  “organic” may not be truthful o Organic is not proven to be “healthier”  Antioxidant – a nutrient that combines with or neutralizes free radicals, preventing oxidative damage to the cell - o O2 extra electron creates a superoxide anion  Highly reactive – binds to cell DNA, cell membrane, RBC’s  disrupts normal structure and physiological function of cell; results in immune response  Causes premature aging, certain cancers etc if it accumulates  Body has enzymes to combat free radicals  Exercise can cause production of O 2- o Effective antioxidants – Vitamin C, E, selenium by acting as an electron acceptor  Phytochemicals o Plant chemical o Complex chemicals that vary from plant to plant o Eg/ orange has over 170 distinct phytochemicals o Function – fight bacteria and viruses, UV light, free radicals o Health benefits – cancer prevention (Free radical and hormone neutralizing), lowering of LDL cholesterol o Table 1 – separates organic from inorganic nutrients; organic contains carbon Macronutrients 1. Carbohydrates – “hydrate of carbon”; carbon based molecule a. Purpose – supplies energy to cells i. RBC’s cannot use fat or protein as energy, needs carbohydrates; neurons preferentially use carbohydrates b. Storage – liver and skeletal muscle; upper storage capacity c. Example Food Sources – simple or complex CHO i. Simple sugars are easy for body to break down ii. Complex carbohydrates – larger molecules; more carbohydrate units; takes longer to break down in digestive system d. Problems/Diseases specific to carbohydrates – diabetes mellitus (inability of body to regulate
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