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Lecture 2

Week 2 (Sept 16, 18, 19) Lecture Notes - LIFESCI 2N03

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Life Sciences
Danny M.Pincivero

LIFESCI 2N03 Basics Of A Healthy Diet (2) September 16, 2013  Healthy diet should follow general principles (adequate diet, moderation, balanced diet, variety)  Adequate Diet – a diet that provides enough of the energy, nutrients and fibre to maintain a person’s health  Moderation – refers to eating the “right” amounts of foods to maintain a healthy weight and to optimize the body’s metabolic processes o Goal – gauge energy intake with energy expenditure on a daily basis; caloric intake should match physical activity o Weight – strong predictor of cardiovascular disease  Balanced Diet – a diet that contains the combinations of foods that provide the proper balance of nutrients  Variety – refers to eating many different foods each day  Energy density – amount of energy in a food source relative to its mass  Nutrient density – amount of nutrients in a food source relative to its energy content  Eg/ 1 cup (250 mL) skim milk vs. 2 cup chocolate milk o RAE = retinal equivalence o Carbs – 0.15 g/kcal (skim milk) vs. 0.14 g/kcal (chocolate milk)  about the same o Protein – 0.10 g/kcal (skin milk) vs. 0.04 g/kcal (chocolate milk) o Chocolate milk – more calories, yet not as nutritious Canada’s Food Guide  Eating well with Canada’s Food Guide (2007) o A serving size as defined in Canada’s Food Guide may not be equal to a serving size listed on a food label o Designed to reduce the risk of chronic disease and obesity through healthy eating  Food Guide Servings for nine age/sex groups  Food groups: o Vegetable and fruit o Grain products o Milk and alternatives o Meat and alternatives 1 LIFESCI 2N03  Diet planning guide o Servings per day  3 age categories children, 6 age/gender groupings adults  Eg/ adult men and women, 7-10 servings of vegetables and fruit/day  Estimated energy needs for adults (table 2-2) Nutrition Labels 2 LIFESCI 2N03 Serving Size Calorie Count/Serving Plant Based foods – no cholesterol o Note: Percent Daily Values o Daily Values  Amount of nutrients provided in a serving of food (packaged food item)  Uses 2 reference points 1. Recommended Daily Intakes – most vitamins and minerals 2. Reference Standards – Table 2-6  Fat and Cholesterol – should take less than recommended (upper limit is reported) Nutrition Facts Nutritional Information o Energy 2,160 o Total Fat 125g (%DV = 192%) o Sat + Trans Fat 45.5g (%DV = 228%) o Cholesterol 255mg (%DV = 85%) o Sodium 2,700 mg (%DV=113%) o Carbohydrate 167g (%DV = 56%) o Fibre 11g (%DV = 44%) Food Groups 1. Breads and cereals (wheat, rice, maize, oats, barley, rye) 2. Legumes 3. Nuts and seeds 4. Fruit 5. Vegetables 6. Milk and milk products 7. Meat and poultry 3 LIFESCI 2N03 8. Fish and seafood 9. Eggs 10. Fats and oils 11. Herbs and spices Breads and Cereals  Wheat, rice, maize, oats, barley, rye  Provides starch and dietary fibre (70-77% of the grain) (storage form of carbohydrates; fibre cannot be broken down)  Protein (6-15% of the grain) o Gluten – major protein in wheat and rye  Source of many digestive conditions – eg/ celiac disease (inability to breakdown gluten) or sensitivity to gluten o Oryzenin – major protein in rice  Whole grain – higher thiamin (B vitamin), vitamin E and fibre o Healthier than refined grains  Grains o Provides CHO, fibre, B-vitamins o Wheat plant – endosperm (contains starch), germ, bran, husk o Refined – finely ground endosperm, low in nutrients  Endosperm (contains starch) retained – other (healthy) parts are removed  Starch has more of a sugar-like property – absorb into cardiovascular system quickly because it has already been broken down mechanically o Enriched – nutrients added back in after processing o Whole-grain – food (i.e. flour) made from the entire grain o Grains – Figure 2-9  Wheat o Covers more of the earths surface than any other crop o Required milling (grinding) and sifting; produces flour, bran, germ, semolina (made from durum wheat; used to make pasta  White Flour – outer portion of kernel is removed, decreased nutrient content (unless it is enriched)  Rice o Feeds over half of the worlds population o Brown rice – bran layer is retained (Vitamin B1) o White rice – brown rice is milled and polished (low in thiamin)  Maize (American Corn) o Dry milled (protein and starch not separated) – produces corn meal, grits, flour 4 LIFESCI 2N03 o Wet milled (protein and starch separated) – produces starch, dextrose, corn syrup solids (high fructose; fructose used as sugar additives in soft drinks), glucose o Hard taco shells vs. soft shells – hard shells made of corn, less sodium  Oats o Steamed or kiln-dried, then dehulled o Rolled (to make oat flakes) o Granulated (fine oatmeal) o Advertised to have a cholesterol-lowering effect – inhibits body’s ability to absorb dietary cholesterol  Barley o Milled (same processing as wheat) o Used for baking, brewing, vinegar, soups, flour for flatbread  Rye o Milled and baked into bread and breakfast cereals  Quinoa – high in fiber, CHO and protein; gluten free  Legumes  Edible seeds from the Leguminosae family  Dried peas, beans, soya beans lentils, peanuts  Most adequately meets RDA standards o High in CHO and fibre o Adequate level of protein (soya beans, lentils – provide complete PRO; essential amino acids) o Vitamins/minerals (thiamin, niacin, zinc, calcium, magnesium) o Low in fat (except soya beans 8%, peanuts 42%) – mostly monosaturated and polyunsaturated Nuts and Seeds  Eaten raw or roasted, processed for oil o Roasting destroys Vitamin E in almonds  Nuts – almonds, walnuts, pecans, cashews  Seeds – sunflower, sesame, pumpkin  Nutritional Pro
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