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Oct 23 - Carbohydrates - Lecture Notes - LIFESCI 2N03

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Life Sciences
Danny M.Pincivero

LECTURE 5LIFESCI 2N03Lecture 5 CarbohydratesOctober 21 2013 Carbohydratehydrate of carbon manufactured by plants o Making a glucose moleculeo Eg making a glucose molecule6 CO6 HOEnergyCHO6 O 2261262 Storage form of glucoseo AnimalsglycogenGlycogenbranches at points compact manner liver higher in glucose 810 glucose units then branch o Plantsstarch amylopectin and amylose and fiber Amylopectinmore bioavailablestarch branched linear chains 2530 glucose units then branchAmylose of all starch available in plant based sources less bioavailable than amylopectin more compact Fibernondigestible carbohydrates in plants our bodies do not have the enzymes to breakdown certain fibers o Soluble FibreDissolves in hot waterForms a gel in GI systemdoes not move fastSlows gastricintestinal motilityadvantage absorbs fatty acids consumed with this fiberFuller feeling absorbs FAsDecreases cardiovascular disease because less cholesterol is absorbed into bodyEg Oat bran dried beans nuts o Insoluble FibreDoes not dissolve in hot waterAbsorbs water into GI systemSpeeds intestinal motilityDecreases Type II DMbecause increased motility decreases glucose absorption timeCan lead to nutrient deficienciesEg Vegetable fruit skins whole grains Function of Carbohydrates 1 Burned for energy 2 Ribose and deoxyribose sugarsserve as part of DNA and RNA 3 Structure and strength of plants4 Linked to proteins and lipidsGlycoproteincovalent link between protein and a carbohydrate monomer found on cell surfaceshelp to strengthen outer membrane of cells and for cellcell adhesionGlycolipidforms myelin around neuron axons insulation barrier for increase in speed of transmission along neuronForms of Carbohydrates o Monosaccharidessimple form of CHOContains 39 carbon atomsEg Glucose fructose galactose CHO 6126 Sugar alcoholsDerived from monosaccharideUsed as a sweetener sorbitol made from glucose sweetness in sugarless gumChemical modification of glucose moleculechanges the way our body perceives and senses monosaccharide o Glucose does not provide sweet flavor fructose provides sweetnesso Sorbitol can add the sweet flavor carries calories and larger sweet effectnegligible amount needed to be included negligible about of caloriesFigureMonosaccharides enter into cardiovascular system from intestinal villiNote lipids and cholesterol do not go directly into cardiovascular system 1LECTURE 5LIFESCI 2N03o Disaccharidessucrose lactose maltose o Oligosaccharides39 CHO monomersConsidered to be a complex carbohydrateo Polysaccharides10 monosaccharidesDietary fromstarchVegetables and fruitsGrainswheat corn oats barley riceLegumespeas beans lentils soyTuberspotatoes yams cassava toxic in raw form FiberSoluble fiberfermentable bacteria can break it down anaerobically becomes short chain fatty acids and can be absorbed to the body very small amount Starch Begins in mouth salivary glands begins to break down larger chain glucose moleculesSmall intestine pancreatic amylases accelerates breakdown of polysaccharidesMaltase sucrose lactaseintestinal cells use these enzymes to breakdown disaccharide in small intestines2
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