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LIFESCI 2N03 (107)
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2 STUDENT NOTES - basics of a healthy diet.doc

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Department
Life Sciences
Course
LIFESCI 2N03
Professor
Danny M.Pincivero
Semester
Winter

Description
18 BASICS OF A HEALTHY DIET Adequate Diet • A diet that provides enough of the energy, nutrients, and fibre to maintain a person’s health. Moderation • Refers to eating the “right” amounts of foods to maintain a healthy weight and to optimize the body’s metabolic processes. GOAL: gauge energy intake with energy expenditure on a daily basis Balanced Diet • A diet that contains the combinations of foods that provide the proper balance of nutrients. Variety • Refers to eating many different foods each day. Energy density: amount of energy in a food source relative to its’ mass. Nutrient density: amount of nutrients in a food source relative to its’ energy content. Example: 1 cup (250 mL) skim milk vs 1 cup chocolate milk LS 2N02 – Human Nutrition for Life Sciences D.M. Pincivero, 2013 19 Skim milk Chocolate milk Calories 88 kcal 190 kcal Protein 9 grams 8 grams CHO 13 grams 27 grams Total sugar 13 grams 26 grams Fat Trace 5 grams (3.3 sat. fat) Calcium 324 mg 301 mg Cholesterol 5 mg 18 mg Vitamin D 2.7 mcg 2.6 mcg Vitamin A 158 RAE 145 RAE carbs: 0.15 g/kcal, 0.14 g/kcal protein: 0.10 g/kcal, 0.04 g/kcal LS 2N02 – Human Nutrition for Life Sciences D.M. Pincivero, 2013 20 CANADA’S FOOD GUIDE Eating Well with Canada’s Food Guide (2007)  A serving size as defined in Canada’s Food Guide may not be equal to a serving size listed on a food label.  Designed to reduce the risk of chronic disease and obesity through healthy eating. Food Guide Servings for nine age/sex groups. Food groups: • Vegetables and Fruit • Grain Products • Milk and Alternatives • Meat and Alternatives LS 2N02 – Human Nutrition for Life Sciences D.M. Pincivero, 2013 21 LS 2N02 – Human Nutrition for Life Sciences D.M. Pincivero, 2013 22 CANADA'S FOOD GUIDE (cont'd) Diet planning guide Servings per day • 3 age categories children, 6 age/gender groupings adults • Example: Adult men & women, 7-10 servings of vegetables & fruit/day • Estimated energy needs for adults (table 2-2) NUTRITION LABELS - Food companies and food guys have nutrient claims, (high fibre, low in sodium...), all these claims must pass government organization, some companies go around this by reducing serving size to show lower sodium, or other harmful ingredients LS 2N02 – Human Nutrition for Life Sciences D.M. Pincivero, 2013 23 LS 2N02 – Human Nutrition for Life Sciences D.M. Pincivero, 2013 24 NUTRITION LABELS (cont'd) Daily Values • Amount of nutrients provided in a serving of food (packaged food item) • Uses 2 reference points 1) Recommended Daily Intakes: most vitamins and minerals 2) Reference Standards: Table 2-6 Fat 65 g Saturated fat 20 g Cholesterol 300 mg Carbohydrate (total)300 g Fibre 25 g Sodium 2400 mg Potassium 3500 mg Vitamin C 60 mg Vitamin A 1000 RE Calcium 1100 mg Iron 14 mg - most should not consume more than the stated numbers, sodium and cholesterol do not change with caloric intake, stay constant - micronutrients that do not have an RDA and have an AI instead may not appear on labels NUTRITION FACTS Nutrition information: LS 2N02 – Human Nutrition for Life Sciences D.M. Pincivero, 2013 25 Energy: 2,160 kcal Total fat: 125 grams (%DV= 192%) Saturated + trans fat: 45.5 grams (%DV= 228%) Cholesterol: 225 mg (%DV= 113%) - cholesterol is from animal based foods Sodium: 2,700 mg (%DV= 56%) Carbohydrate: 167 grams (%DV= 56%) Fibre: 11 grams (%DV= 44%) and 8 medium spice chicken wings?? Add 1,150 kcal LS 2N02 – Human Nutrition for Life Sciences D.M. Pincivero, 2013 26 FOOD GROUPS 1. Breads and cereals (wheat, rice, maize, oats, barley, rye) 2. Legumes 3. Nuts and seeds 4. Fruit 5. Vegetables 6. Milk and milk products 7. Meat and poultry 8. Fish and seafood 9. Eggs 10.Fats and oils 11.Herbs and spices Breads and cereals (wheat, rice, maize, oats, barley, rye) • Provides starch and dietary fibre (70-77% of the grain) • Protein (6-15% of the grain) • Gluten – major protein in wheat and rye • Oryzenin – major protein in rice • Whole grains – higher thiamin, vitamin E and fibre Grains • Provides CHO, fibre, B-vitamins • Wheat plant: endosperm, germ, bran, husk • Refined: finely ground endosperm, low in nutrients, mostly just starch left • Enriched: nutrients added back in after processing • Whole-grain: food (i.e., flour) made from the entire grain, contain starch, protein LS 2N02 – Human Nutrition for Life Sciences D.M. Pincivero, 2013 27 LS 2N02 – Human Nutrition for Life Sciences D.M. Pincivero, 2013 28 Grains - Figure 2-9 Wheat • Covers more the earth’s surface than any other crop • Requires milling (grinding) and sifting….produces flour, bran, germ, semolina (made from durum wheat……used to make pasta) White flour – outer portion of kernel is removed, decreased nutrient content LS 2N02 – Human Nutrition for Life Sciences D.M. Pincivero, 2013 29 Rice • Feeds over half of the worlds’ population • Brown rice – bran layer is retained • White rice – brown rice is milled and polished (low in thiamin) Maize (American corn) • Dry milled (protein and starch not separated)…..produces corn meal, grits, flour • Wet milled (protein and starch separated)……produces starch, dextrose, corn syrup solids, glucose LS 2N02 – Human Nutrition for Life Sciences D.M. Pincivero, 2013 30 OATS • Steamed or kiln-dried, then dehulled • Rolled (to make oat flakes) • Granulated (fine oatmeal) • Advertised to have a cholesterol-lowering effect ---> the fibre in the oats, that we are not able to breakdown, prevents cholesterol absobtion BARLEY • Milled (same processing as wheat) • Used for baking, brewing, vinegar, soups, flour for flatbread RYE • Milled and baked into bread and breakfast cereals • blood glucose lower again because of fibre LEGUMES • Edible seeds from the Leguminosae family • Dried peas, beans, soya beans, lentils, peanuts • Most adequately meets RDA standards • High in CHO and fibre • Adequate level of protein (soya beans, lentils…….provide complete high quality protein) • Vitamins/minerals (thiamin, niacin, zinc, calcium, magnesium) LS 2N02 – Human Nutrition for Life Sciences D.M. Pincivero, 2013 31 • Low in fat (except soya beans, 8%, and peanuts, 42%)…..mostly monounsaturated and polyunsaturated (healthy fats, but still fats so high energy). NUTS AND SEEDS • Eaten raw or roasted, processed for oil ---> when we apply heats to food, nutrients may be destroyed Nuts: almonds, walnuts, pecans, cashews Seeds: sunflower, sesame, pumpkin Nutritional profile: per 100 grams • Protein (g): 2.0 (chestnuts) to 24.4 (pumpkin seeds) • Fat (g): 2.7 (chestnuts) to 77.6 (macadamian)… mono and polyunsat. - healthy fats but still a lot of energy (calories) • Carbohydrates: 3.1 (brazil) to 36.6 (chestnuts) • Dietary fibre: 1.9 (pine nuts) to 7.9 (sesame seeds) • Regular consumption decreases risk for coronary artery disease (action of Vitamin E and unsaturated fat) FRUIT
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