LIFESCI 3C03 Lecture 1: Cholera Summary

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Cholera - Bacterial disease that can live outside of a human host and is routed via ingestion of water contaminated
with feces from an infected individual
Significance
diarrheal diseases, including cholera, kill an estimated 2.46 million people each year according to WHO
cholera was the original case study in epidemiology and led to several important medical and healthy policy mile
stones
Vibrio Cholerae
bacteria thrive in warm, brackish water
more than 90% of cases are mild or have no symptoms
severe cases marked by dangerous dehydration
cells attempt to normalize extreme concentration of ions from cholera and results in diarrhea
this leads to dehydration
Cholera's Effects
cholera infects the epithelial cells that line the intestine
these cells are responsible for absorbing nutrients from our food and depositing water back into the stool so we
can eliminate the waste
cholera releases a toxin that cause ion channels in the epithelial cell membranes to become locked in the open
position
results in chloride ions rushing out of the cells
to normalize concentration of these ions, the epithelial cells dump their water into the intestine too
Cholera Symptoms
the result is diarrhea so severe it can cause death by dehydration in a matter of hours
until the stethoscope became widely used in the 1850's, it was difficult to tell if a person with cholera was dead
or alive
Cholera's Spread
Cholera mainly spreads through drinking water contaminated with feces, or through food washed or grown in
contaminated water
children and the elderly are most at-risk, as well as those with weak immune systems
Prevention
the best way to prevent cholera is to avoid water contamination, or avoid exposure to contaminated water
there is also a cholera vaccine
Treatment
cholera is highly treatable with oral rehydration solution
all you really need is lots of clean water - but not everyone has access to this
severe cases may require intravenous fluids and antibiotics
antibiotics are very cheap and just need to be added to clean water
the mortality rate with treatment is less than 1%
the mortality rate without treatment is approx. 50%
despite being highly treatable, cholera still sickens about 3 million people and kills 100,000 people every year
Key Terms
Endemic: a disease that is regularly found among a group of people or in a particular region
Epidemic: an outbreak of infectious disease in a community at a particular time
Pandemic: an outbreak that covers a wide geographic area and affects a large proportion of the population
i.e. H1N1 flu = pandemic
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Document Summary

Cholera - bacterial disease that can live outside of a human host and is routed via ingestion of water contaminated with feces from an infected individual. Signi cance diarrheal diseases, including cholera, kill an estimated 2. 46 million people each year according to who cholera was the original case study in epidemiology and led to several important medical and healthy policy mile stones. 50% despite being highly treatable, cholera still sickens about 3 million people and kills 100,000 people every year. Endemic: a disease that is regularly found among a group of people or in a particular region. Epidemic: an outbreak of infectious disease in a community at a particular time. Pandemic: an outbreak that covers a wide geographic area and affects a large proportion of the population i. e. h1n1 flu = pandemic. Bay of bengal - the first pandemic (1817-1924) 7 cholera pandemics began in india and spread out towards the middle east, eastern africa and the.

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