LIFESCI 2A03 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Null Hypothesis, Statistical Hypothesis Testing, Ice Cream Headache

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MODULE 1: THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD
LECTURE 2 FORMULATING AND TESTING HYPOTHESES
STARTING POINT FOR RESEARCH
INDUCTIVE REASONING
Summarizes a set of observations and serve to provide predictions about
unseen events
o E.g. this ice is cold therefore all ice is cold
Observation pattern tentative hypothesis theory
DEDUCTIVE REASONING
Going beyond the formulation of hypotheses formed by induction to test whether
they are correct
o If all green apples are sour, then this green apple will be sour
Theory hypothesis observation confirmation
o Used and discussed more
o Both points are often used interchangeably to accurately define an idea
THE HYPOTHESIS
Statement or idea proposed as a tentative explanation to a research question
that accounts for observations. Statement must be:
o Simple, specific & stated in advance
The hypothesis leads to PREDICTIONS (expectations based on that
hypothesis) about the result of intervention
TESTING THE HYPOTHESIS
The formulation and testing of hypotheses is the basis of any scientific or rational
inquiry
Application of the scientific method and deductive syllogism allow one to test the
hypothesis
Deductive syllogism: hypothesis followed by a prediction
o If (H)… then (P)…
H= hypothesis, P= prediction
EXAMPLE:
H: all swans are white
P: swans that live in America should be white
o If (H)… then (P)…
If all swans are white, American swans should be white
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Document Summary

Inductive reasoning: summarizes a set of observations and serve to provide predictions about unseen events, e. g. this ice is cold therefore all ice is cold, observation pattern tentative hypothesis theory. The hypothesis: statement or idea proposed as a tentative explanation to a research question that accounts for observations. Statement must be: simple, specific & stated in advance, the hypothesis leads to predictions (expectations based on that hypothesis) about the result of intervention. Analogy: court trials: is the defendant innocent (ho) or guilty (ha, the defendant is presumed innocent until proven guilty, only with enough evidence the jury will reject his innocence, limitations (errors) Results: 20/73 (27%) reported headaches, 9/72 (9%) reported headaches, a statistical analysis (e. g. chi square test) would allow you to compare the results in the two group. Drawing conclusions: if researchers reject ho data supports ha or is consistent with the ha (dot.

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