LIFESCI 2N03 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Cytoplasm, Adrian Fulford, Metabolic Pathway

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LS 2N03 Human Nutrition for Life Sciences
D.M. Pincivero, 2014
LECTURE
BIOENERGETICS
WHAT IS METABOLISM?
Sum of all chemical reactions that occur in the body
Anabolic reactions
Synthesis of molecules
Catabolic reactions
Breakdown of molecules
Bioenergetics
Converting foodstuffs (fats, proteins, carbohydrates) into energy
THE EUKARYOTIC CELL
The mitochondrion
Cellular membrane
Nucleus
-“energy factory”
-major source of cellular electricity
and intracellular signaling
-home of cell’s genes
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61
LS 2N03 Human Nutrition for Life Sciences
D.M. Pincivero, 2014
PROTEIN SYNTHESIS
1. DNA contains information to produce proteins.
2. Transcription produces mRNA.
3. mRNA leaves nucleus and binds to ribosome.
4. Amino acids are carried to the ribosome by tRNA.
5. In translation, mRNA is used to determine the arrangement of amino acids in the polypeptide
chain.
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LS 2N03 Human Nutrition for Life Sciences
D.M. Pincivero, 2014
WHAT ARE ENZYMES?
Catalysts that regulate the speed of reactions
Lower the energy of activation
Factors that regulate enzyme activity
Temperature
pH
What role do enzymes play in metabolism?
Effect of temperature
Effect of pH
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