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Lecture 1

MMEDIA 1A03 Lecture 1: MMEDIA 1A03 Weeks 1-3


Department
Multimedia
Course Code
MMEDIA 1A03
Professor
Dr.0
Lecture
1

Page:
of 5
Binary Code and it's Consequences
How old is binary code? When/Where does it come from?
Earliest clear recording is from Chinese civilization, in 9th century B.C.
Pingala 5th-2nd B.C. India
Across Africa, dates not clear
In Europe binary numbers appeared in 17th century credited to Leibniz, a theologian and
philosopher
Morse code is binary
Claude Shannon, in 1937, proposed a theory of how math could be done w binary code (binary
arithmetic)
If you have a code which consists of only 2 possible values, it doesn't matter what you call them (0 1/
High Low/ Yes No/ On Off/ Birds Pigs etc)
0 or 1 = 2 possibilities
0/1 or 0/1 = 4 possibilities
0/1 or 0/1 or 0/1 = 8 possibilities
=
000
001
010
011
100
101
110
111
100
1=4// 0=0// 0=0//
therefore 100=4
101=5
111=7 1=4 1=2 1=1
011=3
Week 1 Jan 5-9
Wednesday, January 14, 2015
6:34 PM
MMEDIA 1A03 Page 1
011=3
8421
1111=15
0000=0
TERMINOLOGY
What is a BIT? Anything which can have two possible states.
Byte= 8
128
64
32
16
8
4
2
1
11111111=255
10101010=170
Because 128+0+32+0+8+0+2=170
No, or very little, noise is added by transmission or storage, making message more clear
Can produce perfect copies which had been unheard of in human history
Analog has more than 2 options, creating more noise/mistaken signals
Perfect copies = problems for IP
Ease of translation
Ease of segmentation (message can be broken up and put back together, makes sending easier)
FOR THIS WEEK, COMPLETE READINGS BEFORE TUTORIAL
Consequences of Digital and Binary Coding
MMEDIA 1A03 Page 2
1 bit = 2 possibilities
2 bits = 4 possibilities
8 bits = 256 possibilities
16 bits = 65536 possibilities
24 bits = 4 billion possibilities
Step One: Represent numbers with Binary Code
0-1-1-1-1-1-1-0
0+64+32+16+8+4+20
=
126
Step Two: Represent intensities with numbers
Weather, colours, and sounds all have degrees of intensity. It can be 0or 1.2345678901890- degrees. An apple can be more
red or less red, and a sound can have more waves or less waves.
If we use numbers to represent intensities, we need an idea of what the range of intensities are. In a video game, to know
your health level, you must know how many points you start with, i.e. 50, and how many you die with, i.e. 0.
I.E.
Redness: 0 to 255, 0 to 1.0
Ontario Climate: -35 degrees to 30 degrees Celsius.
Older video games used very few bits, not allowing for many colours, which explains why we see so many pixels.
New games use an RGB Scale (RGB Encoding)
If the Scale looks like this:
R:
255
G:
163
B:
118
The combination will create a light red tone.
HSB, HSV, HSL
Hue, Saturation, Brightness, Value, or Light
January 16
Colour Models (RGB, CMYK, HSV, palette)
Colour Spaces
Colour Profiles (a way of mapping between colour spaces)
Size Calculations
RGB/8 4608 x 3072
24 bits per pixel
24*4608=110592
110592 bits per column
339738624 bits per image
42467328 bytes per image
This is the resolution of the image. Resolution refers to how many pixels there are.
Aspect Ratio: Relationship between width and height
800x600 resolution = 3 : 2
Or 16 : 9 for widescreen
Frequency (times per second = Hertz)
Amplitude (more amplitude often, but not always, means louder)
Week 2 Jan 12-16
Wednesday, January 14, 2015
6:35 PM
MMEDIA 1A03 Page 3