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Music 1a03 Lecture 2.docx

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McMaster University
Joe Argentino

Keys Two modes: 12 major modes or keys 12 minor modes or keys Melodic Intervals - Half step vs whole step - Sharp sign- raises a note by half a step - Flat sign – lowers a note by half a step Listen to the Star spangled banner in minor mode – doesn’t sound as positive and has a more sinister sound to it Half steps is where you find characteristics and can tell us the pattern All whole steps becomes a very important sound scape in late 20 century because there is no Hierarchy Like keys the key signature tells us what flats and sharps to play When looking at circle of fifths keys that are adjacent to each other are keys composers like to move to because it is a small shift from getting from one key to another Rhythm (ordering of music through time) Meter: underlying patter of beats (usually what you are tapping your foot to while listening to a song) Beats group into measures Duple meter Triple meter Quadruple meter measure Duple meter: two beats in a bar or measure 1 2| 1 2| 1 2| Strong weak, strong weak, strong weak Triple meter: three beats in a bar or measure 1 2 3 | 1 2 3| first beat is accented – strong weak weak, strong weak weak Quadruple Meter: four beats in a bar or measure 1 2 3 4| 1 2 3 4| strong weak medium weak, strong weak medium weak Whole note has 4 beats Half note has 2 beats quarter note has 1 beat eighth note has ½ beat sixteenth note has ¼ beat thirty second note has 1/8 beat Harmony : the union of multiple notes sung or played at the same time Chord: three or more notes sounding simultaneously A melody can be harmonized using chords in more than one way Tonic: serves as a home base Louis Moreau Gottschalk vs south city voices vs Stravinsky harmonic interval September 14 – Lecture 3 Harmony – Melodies are horizontal, Harmonies are generally vertical Chord is three or more notes sounding simultaneously Harmonies support melodies up above Harmony- the union of multiple notes sung or played at the same time Melody- can be harmonized using chords in more than one way Tonic- always serves as the home base think of a home as a key where you start and you will come back to at the end Some harmonizations are more controversial than others Harmony South City Voices - An Atlanta based vocal jazz ensemble, an a cappella group - when listening to it what word could describe the harmony? Do you hear dissonance? Dissonance creates tension. Tension is also created through other means such as a high note holding a really high pitch. th Harmony by Stravinsky (most influential in the 20 century) Immigrated to USA in 1939 and became a citizen - he arranged the American anthem - performed in 1944 by Boston Symphony - police confiscated the score - threatened with being thrown in jail Same with Jimmi Hendrix the star spangled banner live at Woodstock 1989 Harmony by Louis moreau Gottschalk - American composter (see chapter 34) and piano virtuoso -born in New Orleans - Harmonized the American anthem after the Civil war in a piece entitled Union (Yankee doodle the star spangled banner and hail Columbia) -The composition is a response to the American Civil War Acoustics and Timbre - Pitch: highness or lowness of sound . Based on frequency or the number oscillations per second - Microtonal is one pitch into four for example - Height determines how loud the actual sound is - If instruments are playing the same pitch the wavelength is constant but the pattern may change (the wave would be what looks different) - A sound thats reproduced electronically may not sound too great - Dynamics: Volume of sound, ranges from very soft to very loud and is based on amplitude or size of the sound wave - in western music we have a lot of fixed pitchs and in old western they used to be manipulated by creating different sound (bending the pitch) - Notated: o Pp(pianissimo) =very soft o P(piano)= soft o Mp (mezzo piano) = medium soft o Mf (mezzo forte) =medium loud o F(forte)=loud o Ff(fortissimo)=very loud - Timbre: unique sound of each instrument , created by overtones or partials in the sound wave (overtones such as when a bell rings and you hear high frequencies after) - Tritone with pedal vs non-pedal has more partials vs no partials - One example vs Louis armstrongs version Texture Monophonic: single sounding One single melodic line with no accompaniment Soloist or group playing or singing a single melody (in unision) *********** Homophonic: same sounding A single melodic line with accompaniment (doesn’t have to be singing it could be someone playing) Melody stands out above accompaniment ex: marvin gaye American anthem would be homophonic because there are drums and other instruments in the background Polyphonic: many sounding Multiple melodies of equal importance , two or more Musical Form Three Strategies: Repetition, Variation, Contrast Subunits of form are designated using letters - Eg ABC, ABAA’, or AA’B - ABA, ABACABA, or aba etc - Or ABRACADABRA jk jk Word painting : Using musical elements to “describe” a word or phrase such as low and peaks can represent valleys and mountains or thunder. Often the structure of the poetry matches the form of the work . Repetitions variations and contrasts in the poetry may correspond to the repetitions variations and contrasts in the music September 18 2012 – Lecture 3 Genre- Categorization by -performance medium (solo voices, choir, orchestra, string, quartet band etc) -social function It sets up expectations for the listener The middle ages (prima practice) 476-1400 Beginning with the fall of the Roman Empire Ending with the beginning of the Russian Period Church dominated cultural/intellectual life Music: sacred and secular functions Gregorian chantplainchant composed by anonymous monks or priests - Words of the catholic sacred liturgy - Sung by voice or choir in unison - No harmony ie monophonic - Clear projections of sacred liturgy (large spaces/areas, no speakers so you must project your words somehow) Pope Gregory: According to legend he received the melodies of plainchant from the Holy spirit which appeared to him in the form of a dove. th Up until the 10 century things were passed down orally after that it was written down Sacred Music: Churches and cathedrals are most important sacred structures. They are reflected testimonies toward god and power of the church itself. Created musical performance spaces. Large with incredible acoustic qualities. Built to instruct the faithful for example stained glass windows depicting biblical scenes a lot of people couldn’t read - Music is a vehicle used to enhance texts - Plainchant perfect for clearly projecting texts over large spaces - Text is most important (music enhances and transmits text over large spaces) ***until we get to polyphonic - All church services included particular chants - Mass was the most important liturgy or service of the day ( a re-enactment of Christ’s last supper) Secular Music: - Castles are most important secular structures - Europe consisted of Kingdoms, Duchies and Fiefdoms ruled by a lord who collected taxes - Demonstrations of power - Rulers competed for services of best composters, artists, and musicians - Reflected importance of secular and worldly power for royalty and aristocracy - Created opportunities for musical performances - Wandering Minstrels: poetry acrobatics song etc Musical Entertainment - Poet composers: Troubadours (south in present day France ), Trouveres (north), Minnesingers (Present day Germany) - Songs about love heroism and pastoral life - Some courts employed full time musicians - Some composers and writers such as boccaccro and charmber Music for dancing - Served an important social function - What little is known about dance comes from images - Group activity - Drumming - Instruments such as the shawm (double reed instrument) had a raspy sound th Notation: transmitted orally until the 10 century, earliest chant manuscripts show only contour used as a memory aid (no rhythm) - Manuscripts hand written, expensive parchment, ink - Printing emerged in the mid of the 15 c (when things started changingshift) Music - Scales other than major and minor - Modesdifferent than functional harmony - Polyphony-makes it more difficult to hear text - Heightened expressivity of text with music - Secular music for royal and aristocratic ceremonies and entertainment th September 19 2012 – Lecture 4 Hildegard von Bingen 1098-1179 “Plays of Virtues” - Spoken male voice at very beginning - Then a single female voice projecting the text - Melodic contour –note that is returned to all the time (a jump) - Then hear more than one voice - Still monophonic because they are singin the same melodic line - Cadences throughout –brief resting points (breaks in melody) - Irregular rhythms of words being sung - No clear cut rhythm: dependent on projection on text (free rhythm) - Text dictates the flow - Word-music relationship Hildegard von bingen: most prolific composer before 1500 she was born in what is now western Germany to a noble family and became a Benedictine nun at age of 16. sHe had visions and revelations. He was a writer on theology medicine botany and lives of saints. His musical works consisted of chants for religious services which took place throughout the day in the convent. Play of Virtues - A morality play dramatized allegory of good vs evil - Struggling over the fate of a single soul - Plot centres around disputes between satan and the virtues - Each virtue=1female singer - Chorus of all virtues = monophonic - Satan speaks his lines (medieval belief that hell was devoid of music) - Note the contrast between spoken and sung text - Hildegard builds on tradition of liturgical plainchant esp florid, which was used in church services - Plainchant developed slowly over many centuries - Grew from traditional jewish services such as melodic recitation of psalms - Orally transmitted for many centuries - Plainchant or Gregorian chant for pop Gregory 1 who may have written or organized much of it in the late 6 century - Function: to project the text clearly so that it could be understood by the people - Clarity and melodic beauty thus inspirational - Monophonic texture until the bells - Rhythm: mostly free reflecting long and short accents of the words - Performers: the virtues were presumed to be female at that time performed by nuns in a convent - Satan was presumed to be male probably performed by the priest who served the convent - Melody: an other worldly sound based on church modes. They have special scales different from Major and Minor. - A lot of plainchant are written in these forms: o Dorian Mode : white notes from D to D on piano o Phyrygian Mode: wh notes for E to E on piano o Lydian Mode: white notes from F to F on piano o Mixolydian mode: G to G on the piano o Syllabic: one note per syllable Melismatic: many notes per syllable melismas often used to emphasize words - Historical context - Like morality plays some popular works today show an innocent figure struggling between the forces of good and evil st September 21 2012 Soloist to group- hallelujah back to solo with high registers Caro Mea - Alleluia from the mass for the Feast of Corups Christi (Body of Christ) - Celebration of Holy Sacrament - Text for Alleluia from the Gospel of John 6:55-56 Mass structure: Ordinary- always the same – Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus and Agnus Dei - Proper: specific to Sunday or feast day – Introit, gradual, alleluia, Offertory, communion - Most alleluia will start and end with an alleluia but the text in the middle changes - As with most plainchant, the composer is unknown—probably a monk or priest - Monophonic- listening to one melody even though a hundred people are singing it - The Alleluia is a responsorial chant- alternates between soloist and chorus , first soloist second comes the chorus - Singing lengthens and extends each syllable and allows the singer to project the words over a much larger space and enhances the words to help remember them - Melismas like on the final a of Alleluia used to heighten expression Form: - A (soloist) “singing Alleluia” -A (chorus) -B (Soloist) – high point at “sanguis meus vere est potus”, long descent to “meam carnem” -A (soloist) -A(chorus) Plainchant Alleluia “Caro mea from the Mass for the feast of Corpus Christi” 2 San Illdefonso Indians of New Mexico – EAGLE DANCE Feel a beat and pulse, got fast in the middle with anew part as the tempo accelerates and at the end it returns to the first rhythm - Monophonic chant is utitlized by many cultures throughout history - Chant is essential to many sacred rituals : Christians jews hindus Tibetan Buddhist Taoist etc - Chant: predominant form of music in Native North American Indian Culture - Even thought there is a drum in the background it is said to be one with the melody Powwow - Every tribe had unique culture and traditions - European settlement - Native Americans tribes eradicated forcibly resettled forced to live together - Forced resettlement= pan Indian culture - Powwow: celebration of culture - Preserves culture, music, craft etc Eagle Dance is heard at powwows-intertribal gatherings with feature chanting, drumming, dancing, crafts and Indian arts Powwows are organized by a committee that requests certain performances and are popular and profitable for organizers. Eagle dance was once part of a rain ceremony and portrays a cycle of eagle (a creature that connects to heaven an d earth). Two tribe members portray eagles at flight and the feathers bear prayers that can’t touch the ground Consists of one monophonic melody line sung by males in unison accompanied by percussion instruments. Sounds of percussion instruments (drums and rattles) support the rhythm of the chant rather than creating independent lines in the music. Most native American music is monophonic most often accompanied by percussion. Word-Music Relationships - Songs in native American culture are considered to come from the spirit world o Transcribed by a person o Dream or revelation o Then transmitted to group o Songs not about worldly matters o Thus use vocables Vocables meaningless sung syllables Voice becomes a melodic instrument Some vocables are more accentuated than others Eagle dance Form: ABA with brief free (ie non metered) and metered introduction Each section(i.e A and B) contains a unique melody comprised of repeating units Both A and B sections contain terraced melody (Downward contour) Melody: descends gradually in terraced steps - A section=2 phrases with identical vocables slightly different pitches sung 3 times then varied - B section=one shorter phrase sung twice; entire section is repeated (Faster tempo) - A section returns; repeated 3 times then varied September 25 2012-09-25 Listen to different versions of American anthem Textures syllabic, meter questions Multiple choice and fill in the blank on general knowledge from this chapter Francesco Landini Custom to hearing different type of cadences or stops and this is something you will be able to identify Squarcialupi manuscript - Hear a repeat of some material - New section of text has new music - Part where music returns but text is different - Rhythm 1,2,3 - Melody has two parts - Syllabic – words are coming out with almost every note - 2 melodies polyphonic - 2 voices come together in the end and sing in unison Francessco - 1325-1397 - Blinded by smallpox as a child - Skilled performer on the organetto or portative organ - Church organist at the Florentine monastery of Santa Trinita in 1361 - Designed and built musical instruments - The leader of the Italian ars nova - Famous poet (which was not unusual) - Most prolific and famous Italian composer of the 14 century - Wrote 150 plus secular songs - This represents one third of surviving Italian music from 14 century His music: Ballatas: like Behold Spring Virelais: French songs Caccia: Hunting songs Behold Spring - A balata (Italian for danced) for two voices - A secular song of love - Courtly Love in this age : knight declares himself servant of his lady love, heroic deeds done in her honor, love for her ennobles him, especially if she rejects him Poet Giovanni Boccaccio, in his poem, Decameron, describes how a group of lords and ladies fleeing the plague sang this song to divert their minds - Polyphonic (hard to distinguish both voices in this one) - Early polyphonic works (8 /9 Century) added melodic lines above or below plainchant - Precursor: Organum when the parts move independently from each other? - Sanctioned by church - Perotin: famous composer of organum who worked at Cathedral of Notre Dame in Paris - Text Setting: syllabic setting projects text clearly, occasional melismas - Triple Meter (strong weak weak) - Cannot have a free meter when two or more parts move together - Lengths of individual notes vary but meter remains constant - Polyphonic texture o Subdivided into smaller units with cadences Each cadence ends with a unison - Unison: two voices singing in the exact same note or pitch - Form: poetic stanzas are turned into three verses known as strophes o First verse is repeated at the end, o Music of the second strophe contrasts with music of the other three o A B A A (third A music is the same the text is different) A B A are all different then the last A is the same st o A=1 melody/text o B=contrasting melody/text o A same melody with different text o A first melody repeated with same text THE SUARCIALUPI CODEX - Manuscript (hand written) - Manu scriptus hand written - Codex: bound manuscript - Largely secular - Santa Maria Degli Angeli in Florence - Came into hands or organist Antonio Scuarcialupi (hence the name) KNOW THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN A AND B SECTION Recognize polyphonic texture and use of meter of Behold spring Cadences with in the work and how they come together Aspects of Landinis life Sept 25 2012 Guillaume de Machaut (1300-1377) Medieval French poet composer - Spent much of his life in the service of monarchs - Appointed canon at the cathedral of Rheims in 1335 - First composer to consistently attach his name to manuscripts - Traveled in elite circles - Courts include: Navarre berry Luxembourg and Normandy - Like the trouveres machaut was a poet and musician - Lead the French ars nova - Contributions include o Strophic form o Virelai (the homophonic Douce dame jolie) o Rondeau - Supervised the copying of his complete works in six large manuscripts kown as the machaut manuscripts with over 2100 leaves Myth of Pygmalion - According to ancient legend a mythic artist Pygmalion creates a statue so beautiful that he falls in love with it and it comes to life - Ovid: in this account Aphrodite (the goddess of love) pities pymalion and brings his statue to life - Machaut: the woman acts like a statue to the man who prays to it I can all too well compare my lady - Secular - Another story of courtly love (I.e a nobleman admires a noblewoman who does not return his admiration) - The poet’s beloved lady is compared to Pygmalion who carves a statue so beautiful that he falls in love with it - Whereas Pygmalion;s statue comes to life this lady is already alive but remains liek a stuatue to the nobleman who prays to her - Texture: three independent voices (upper voice most active) - lower two voices are slower moving and difficult to distinguish until B section - Five cadences (point of arrival indicating end of musical unit) - Form AAB (bar form) - Four sentences o Same music used for sentence 1 and 2 (same music different words) - Contrasting music for the two sentences - Like the form of star spangled banner - ***KNOW LANGUAGES OF SONGS The mass - Machauts messe de nostre dame (mass of our lady) is the first known polyphonic setting of all the sung movements of the mass ordinary by one composer - This polyphonic setting contrasts the monophonic (plainchant) singing of the ordinary - Know for test ordinary vs proper - J.s bach, wolfgang amadeaus Mozart, Ludwig van Beethoven Historical context - Ritual re-enactment of christs Last supper - Bread represents becomes christs body - Wine –blood - Body and blood are part of communion - Communion received after preparation in the form of prayers reading and hymns Mass(ordinary) sung portions - Kyrie: a prayer for mercy to God and Christ - Gloria: a decleration of praise - Credo: a declaration of faith - Sanctus: blessing of the bread and wine - Agnus Dei: A prayer for redemption from the lamb of god - Ite missa est: A brief dismissal of the congregation Recognize 3 part polyphonic texture of this work Describe the difference in melodic motion between the upper voice and the two lower voices Identify cadences Know the story of the myth of whatever and how this is a part of courtly th September 28 2012-09-28 Alfonso el Sabio -born in Spain - Alfonso el Sabio also known as Alfonso x - Crowned king of castile and leon at age 29 - Ruled from 1252 to 1284 - Earned the name of el sabio through his artistic endeavours - Alfonso the wise - Recognized the importance of both the Islamic culture and roman heritage of spain - His appreciation of different cultures facilitated the mixing of artists and scholars of different faiths - Cantigas de santa maria (songs for the virgin mary) - 400 songs about miracles of the virgin mary throughout Europe - Several manuscripts - Attributed to alfonso el sabio He who gladly serves - From songs to the virgin mary no 249 - Likely written by someone else - Original version is to be sung this is an instrumental version - An instrumental peice using two drums (percussion) and two shawms (woodwinds like the oboe) - Shawm: player blows through double reeds; vibrations are magnified by a long wooden tube - Has a raucous rough sound - KNOW SHAWM IS USED AND IS A DOUBLE REED INSTRUMENT - FORM: ABA ABA AA o Based on 2 relatively short melodic units o A and B move similarly but B moves to a higher register - Three textures: monophony (both instruments play the same melody) - Homophony (melody plus drone bass) - Drone: a single long note held underneath the melodic line - Heterophony: synchronized performance of two or more versions of melody (one plays a more elaborate or embellished form of the melody) - MIDDLE AGES SUMMARY - Textures: monophony and polyphony - Melodies: conjunct flowing and smooth , not wild, divided into sections by cadences, based on scales of the medieval modes - Rhythm: free flowing free meter or metrically structured - Harmony: a byproduct of counterpoint - Form: based on repetition variation and contrast - Text setting: syllabic for clarity melismatic for emphasis Section 1 listening 50% Seven excerpts will each be played a) Composer b) Name of composition c) Texture d) Language Excerpt 2 A) Texture B) Genre C) Rhythm metered or free D) THIS IS A NEW SONG YOU WILL NOT KNOW Part 2: circle the correct answer Part 3: True or False Part 4: fill in the blank October 5 2012-10-05 Renaissance Music - Continuous imitation: motives wander from vocal line to vocal line - 1425-1600 - Arts and sciences forgotten during the middle ages - French word for rebirth (rebirth of idea of humanism) - A recovery of ideals from antiquity after the middle ages or dark ages - Humanism: intellectual and cultural movement o Human interests and values o Science, philosophy literature, painting, sculpture and music (especially vocal) - Arts and sciences were revived - 1455 first printed book was an important time - Economic growth during 15 century - Kingdoms, duchies city states got bigger and richer- increased demand for the arts - Renaissance Man: knowledge of a variety of arts and sciences - Human reason and individuality th - Movable type: mid 15 century - Learn more on E-text - Music printing by 1500 Religion: Catholic and Protestants - Rift in 1517 - Church divided into two branches - Faith of monarch determined - Protestant Reformation: o Martin Luther o Composer William Byrd, a catholic in Protestant England (Q E I) - Counter Reformation: attempts to hold on to the catholic liturgy and doctrine in the face of Protestantism - Music to move the souls of the faithful Martin Luther - Theologian and composer - German monk who nailed a list of complaints against the catholic church on the door of a church in wittenburg (1517) *ON TEST - 1483-1546 - One reform: congregation participates in the service - Services in vernacular rather than latin - “German psalms for the people that is to say sacred hymns - Luther and helpers created hymns - Adapted Gregorian chants - Popular music (i.e appropriate secular music) - Wrote “A Mighty Fortress is our God” Music - Words and music together in unity one is not more important than the other - Polyphony - Equal voice parts - 3 4 5 or even 6 parts - Full rich sound with intricate texture and rhythm - Strong attention to text being sung even when polyphonic melodies were complex - Harmonic structure is a by product of the lines together - Luthers song was in a mode that was easy to hear and sing ( a custom to) - A fortress is our mighty god associate it with Luther because it will be on a test October 9 2012-10-09 Josquin Des Prez - Ca. 1450-1521 - Much of his life is shrouded in mystery - Greatest composer of the early Renaissance - An international celebrity in his time - Hired by Duke of Ferrara to be a composer for his court - There may have been several composers named josquin - He began his career in France and com pleted it in what is now known as Belgium - Spent the middle part of his career in Italy - He was widely published o Publishers misattributed works to him ( in order to sell them) - Contributed to the mass genre: canonic,cantus firmus, parody and paraphrase (MISSA PANGE LINGUA) Other Compositions - Composed around 70 french chansons and Italian frotolla (singular) frottole(plural) - Predecessor of the madrigal - Missa pange lingua (a mass) listen to on youtube - Missa La sol Fa re Mi (another mass) - Ave Maria....virgo serena (4-voice motet) Great composer of the motet Josquins ave maria..virgo serena: Features modality conjunct melody smooth counterpoint triadic sonorities, imitation The cantus firmus is less dominant (old plainchants slowed down) The Cricket: Polyphonic soprano (highest range, usually female) Alto (second highest range, usually female) Tenor (second lowest voice, male) Bass (lowest range, male) Voices move together rhythmically throughout much of the piece (homorhythmic) Counterpoint: each voice melodic; not melody+accompaniment Can be intricate and complex From the latin contrapunctum meanding note against note In this recording all 4 voices are male the upper two voices are sung in falsetto Written so it could be played on instruments or sung. Typical in the Renaissance Period Music written to a humorous poem: enhances the spirit of the poetry Uses word painting : long notes on “Hold a long line” Chirping sounds which imitate a cricket Humorous drunken music Long melisma on “love” in the second part Form: Three parts-ternary form Described as ABA: contrast (B is in contrast to A both textually and musically and return to A) October 10 2012 Thomas Weelkes : Since Robin Hood - 1575-1623 - English composer lived during the age of Shakespear and during the reigns of Elizabeth I and James I - Fascinated with Italian poetry and music (many of shakespeares plays are set in Italy) th - Italian madrigal arrived in England in late 16 Century - Weelkes immediately began imitating these models - Also wrote sacred music - Organist at Chichester Cathedral o Lost his job at the cathedral o Because of blasphemy and drunkenness - Primarily a vocal composer - In 1597 published first book of madrigals - 1598 appointed the organist of Winchester college (he composed two more books of madrigals during this time) - Received a degree in music from the New collage in Oxford - Choral instructor and organist in Chichester England - Drunk while playing the organ and swearing during church service - Was eventually reinstated but continued to abuse alcohol - Wrote two more books of madrigals (5 in total) - Then began writing sacred music - As vesta was from Latmos Hill descending—a famous madrigal which contains word painting - Credited with writing more Anglican services than any other composure during this period A V W F L H D Latmos Hill : hill is always the highest note Descending: descending scale and leaps , ascending: ascending scales Running down the hill : descending scales (polyphonic) Two by two: two voices Three by three: three voices Since Robin hood - A song about an actual event that took place in 1599 o William kemp : an English actor and friend of shakespear o Danced from London to Norwich a distance of some 140 miles over the course of nine days o A feat of shameless self promotion o Danced the morris dance: from the same tradition NEED NOTES AFTER THIS th October 12 2012 William Byrd—Sing Joyfully Listen to voices and how they duplicate one another the text is repeated frequently many times the form is unlike many of the forms we have had –things are continuously changing from verse to verse A B C D E (new text and music) Word painting thats associated in music 1542-1623 Byrd was a recusant catholic in an Anglican age An English roman catholic in the protestant court of queen Elizabeth the first Suffered harassment because of his faith Had a monopoly - Was a gentlemen of the chapel royal from 1572 onward - Contemporary of Elizabeth 1 and james 1 - Wrote a great deal of music for protestant (Anglican) Church - Some other compositions: a mass for four voices, O lord make thy servant Elizabeth (a motet), This sweet and merry month of may (madrigal) – ONE OF HIS FEW MADRIGALS THAT HE WROTE The sweet and Merry Month of May - Opens with canonic duet for the two sopranos - Merry – upward rising motif - Birds- music echoes a bird song - Triple meter - Eliza i.e queen Elizabeth I - Beauteous queen of Second Troy – pause in the music His musical output includes: - Latin motets (used in Anglican practice) - Composed catholic and Anglican liturgical music - Consort songs (secular and religious) - Consort fantasias and keyboard fantasias - Variations and dances Sing Joyfully - A sacred work to be sung in church - Text is based on first 4 verses of Psalm 81 - This is an anthem(an English sacred choral work) – English equivalent of a catholic motet (a sacred choral work for the RC church) - an example of A cappella choral music - Choral music : more than one singer to a part (Soprano Alto Tanner Base) - A cappella: sung without any instrument accompaniment - FORM: sectional with cadences sometimes ELIDED - Elided cadence: a new line of text/music begins before previous line/music comes to a complete stop - Sectional: each new section of the text has a new music idea - Texture: polyphonic in 6 voices - Uses imitative counterpoint or imitation-- One voice introduces a melody/text and is imitated by the other voices in succession - First voice and subsequent voices continue to sing as other voices enter - A rich and luxuriant sound that gives a heightened sense of spirituality - The challenge is to exploit the potentials of six voices without obscuring the text Word painting examples - Sing joyfully – lively upward moving musical theme - Blow the trumpet –fanfare like singing with echoes - For this is a statute for Israel – singing in declamatory style (all in rhythm together as if declaring a law) - Performers all male choir, women were not allowed to sing in church at this point Other composers of Sacred Renaissance Music - England : Thomas Tallis - Germany: Martin Luther, Johann Walter - Italy: Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina - Spain: tomas Luis Victoria My lord Help me to pray - A polyphonic piece from the Bahamas in the 19 Century th - Sung by spoinge fishermen passing time on their boats - A type of rhyme singing - Based on gospel texts - Sung in three parts each with different words th - Resembles plytextual works of the 13 century cathedral of notre dame in this respect - Lead singer is called the Rhyme singer An African American syncretism “combinging different forms of belief and practice - Combines Christian and Bahamian beliefs - Texture: 3 parts (rhyme singer) leader monophonic at beginning : wind - Treble singer (Polyphonic = T+B) sky - Bass singer: earth - Call and response - - as the song progresses the calls and responses overlap to create a thick polyphonic texture Intonations: -Rhyme line: varied and usually descending improvised - treble line: 2 halves a ascends and pauses on highest tone; b descends and resolves on lowest tone -Bass line: 2 essential tones that provide basic harmonic support -rhymed couplet -call: changes ex: Oh lord what a faithful Soul -Response: always “My Lord help me to pray” - Later: an embelled BONUS: identify form Tielman Susato - Lived 1510-1570 - A music publisher as well as composer - Lived in Antwerp (now located in Belgium) - No image survives - Was a calligrapher in the scriptorium (copy shop within a cathedral: copying was done by hand) - By 1543 he had established a music printing business – the only one in the low counreis (Belgium and the Netherlands) - Played wind instruments including the sackbut in town band - Promoted local composers by publishing their works - Published many music books that included his own compositions - Many of his songs contained Flemish (dutch) texts - Susato’s moresca was published in the third book of music (1551) o A set of all kinds of dances which can be played pleasantly and comfortably on all musical instruments Moorish Dance - Susato’s Moorish dance was extremely popular dance tune - Music for dancing – popular during renaissance period - William byrd and tielman susato both important composers of dance music - Dance music included pavenes galliards allemandes sarabandes gigues etc each of these dances has a unique tempo meter and rhythm - Moresca=Moorish dance - Depicted combat between moors (muslims) and Christians - Used as entertainment in parades or between acts of dramatic entertainment likely performed by professional troupes - Similar to English morris dancing-facial masks bells on legs Ensemble of Moorish Dance: Winds 3 recorders, 4 shawms, 1 curtal, 4 sackbuts, 2 cornettos STRINGS violins, AND PERCUSSION Moorish Dance Prominent instruments= highest (recorders) Loudests ( sackbuts and cornettos) Percussion provides steady beat for dancing Dance Music: Must have steady beat to facilitate the steps repetition and alternation of musical ideas FORM: BINARY ||: A : || ||: B : || or AA BB Then repeat al adding an additional A section at the end i.e (AABBAABBA IN b section the recorders drop out and the sackbuts and cornettos come to the fore MIDTERM TWO Know protestant reformation Counter reformation martin luther Renaissance Music - Words and music together in unity - Polyphony - Full rich sound with - Intricate texture - Attention to text - Melodies were complex Comparing: paintings and the detail compared to no detail in medieval times, can see personality and faces, and reflects humanism Josquin des pres the Cricket Celebrity, lif
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