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McMaster University
David Gerry

6, 8, 9, 11, 23, 24, 25, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 34 July 19, 2012 Godfather - 1972 - Orchestral score - Reflects trends of late 1950s and 1960s - Underscoring composed by Nino Rota (1911-1979) - Concert composer - Born into a musical family - Spent a lot of time in the U.S - Studied at Curtis Institute in Philly - Conservative concert style - However began composing for Italian films o For Federico Fellini o 16 film together o 18 and a Half o Nadoche - Source music composed by Carmine Coppola (1910-1991) - Father of director - Musician and conductor of broadways th - Suggested that he write the style in a late 19 century Cavalleria Rusticana o By Pietro Mascagni (1863-1945) o Type of late 19 century opera o Realism opera o Focused on lowest classes of society (criminals, peasants) - Verismo - About the mafia in NY - Based on a book by Mario Puzo - In the book, it is made explicit that the don is from a pleasant family - However the don in the movie is not - He comes from Sicily, Italy - Using music to represent that heritage is important in this movie - There are a lot of murders - Fair amount of source music but some underscoring - When someone gets murdered, there is no music o Meant to not glorify violence o And murder in this world is an everyday occurrence and no need to make it so dramatic o Without music, your focused on what’s just happening on screen - Clip 1: Closing Credit of Godfather o A harp strumming the chords o A lot of source music here o Chosen carefully here to what we see o Before the strumming of chords  Triple meter  Arranged, waltz  Folk like character  Nostalgic heritage - Movie open with the dons daughter, a music plays and the music changes at certain points - There are points where it is Italian folk music and 1940s popular music - During a scene, Mike and his American girlfriend come in o The music playing is of mainstream American style - There is a singer who sings Mozart “Marriage of Figaro” o The character is a young boy, usually a woman sings this point o He is singing about how his hormones are raging with love o While, Sonny is upstairs with a women banging - Michael theme o Long held note o Thematic note o Quadruple meter o Even though he is the hero of the film, he is the anti-hero o He isn’t really a hero, he alienates people - Sicily theme o Bit more lavish o More mournful o Rising sixth o Love theme o Michael has this pure attraction to this girl o The Sicily sequence has a lot of underscoring o Some wall to wall underscoring o Makes you fall in love with the place o Empathize their heritage and where they came from o Scenes where Michael is interacting with Kay is source music - Clip 2: Don gets shot and gets taken in hospital o Extensive underscoring o Crucial scene o Tense scene and music is appropriate o Michael wanted to reject his family and live life in a different way o Now he has to protect his father and says I’m with you now o The bodyguard leave for the night o Michael tries to convince the nurse to move his father because guys are coming to kill his father o Cue stops there o There is a lot of tension and they are moving his father  Here steady footsteps in the dark  Dripping and echo in hospital  Tension puts us on edge o Mentions to his father again he is with him to protect him o Godfather theme comes up again o Michael theme is played by an ovo o Is a cold theme, a sinister - Michael sees the crime family get murdered during the baptizism of his godson - He gets asked by the priest questions his faith o There is organ music o Music takes a dark quality o Underscoring o Breaks in music of key lines (stinger) o Rising volume and intensity - Reference to circus music - Polytonality o Difference strands of keys in different areas July 24, 2012 1960s - Social change coming ahead o Vietnam war o Changing roles of men and women o Issue of race and racism - Films investigate those issues - End of lavish orchestral score - Epic score is no longer major category - Tend to use music more sparingly - The fragmenting of audiences into groups o Ages - In 1966, the film studios abanded Hays Code o Series of features banned not by the government but by the studios o Covered all films o Limited use of nudity, law breaking o Studios who broke code were sentenced to fines o Nothing much about music o Generally much need not to be regulated a lot o Abandoned code in 1966 but had one rating for all movies o The rating system is still in place o In 1930, Canada can with two part system, film was either for adult audience or not - New Wave o Began in France o Alfred Hitchcock was part of this movement o In Wave represents the ascendency and voice for the director o Source and the author of the film o The departure of the past  Where producers where quite powerful o Idea of movie being commercial product o In late 1940s, film companies ownership was constitution  They made the films and produced it o Music has cooler and subjective approach  Used more sparingly  More modernist and popular music - Lawrence of Arabia o Epic film o Fought against Arab army o Movie is visually stunning of deserts and camels o Symphonic score o Strongly associated with director  David Lean o Maurice Jarre (1924-2009)  French born and raise  Paris Conservatory is where he studied  Scored for a lot of New Wave directors in Paris  Worked for a lot of David Lean film  Films have a lot of character  Leitmotifs associated with main character named Lawrence  English side of his personality and Arab side of his personality  Theme is Lawrence of Arabia  Western theme and very exotic  Augmented second  Lawrence of England theme  Diatonic  Rhythm of it represents its strong beats  Cue represents modern and lavish style o Clip 1: Walking in the desert in the sun  Notes are increasing  Volume is gradually increasing  Intensity increases  Calmness completely during drinking water scene  No music playing - Edgard Varses o Integrales (1924-25) o Rejected notions of melodies o Dissonant clusters of notes o In a high register o No regular meter o No conventional feature - In the 1960s, having a theme song can be profitable for a film - The Pink Panther (1963) has a great theme song o Quite a different use of jazz o Light hearted for a comedic use o Composer is Henry Mancini  Specialist for theme songs in films  Extensive background in jazz  In film career, collaborated much with director Blake Edwards o Use of sultry jazz is so common now is films - The Western “the spaghetti westerns” o Sergio Leone  Worked with Ennio Morricone (b, 1928)  Worked with music television and radio  Strange innovative scores  Lush sentimental score  Best score was for the “The Good, The Bad, The Ugly”  Filmed in Europe  3 Criminal type characters after gold trying to outwit each other  Opening credit for film contains gunshots, electric guitar  Theme is played by a recorder, human voice, and ocarina  These instruments represent the 3 characters  Part of the theme that goes, “ whomp, whomp”, like a taunt  Clip 1: When Tuco searching for the grave where the gold is  The music makes it exciting  Clip 2: Three of them standing in a circle looking at each other o Remained in Europe o Lead actors were usually American o Film were usually overdubbed o Stark deption of old west o Loose morals - The Story of a Soldier - 2001: A Space Odyssey (1968) o Alex North  Composed music for film  However when he went to see the movie, his music was not in the film o Director had lot of control o Kept temp track instead of using Alex North o Orchestral music with 19 century o Also sprach Zarathustra by Richard Strauss o Famous opening credits o Orchestral 19 century music o Had not been used for science fiction films o Very modernist cutting-edge music - Requiem by Gyorgy Ligeti o Coral work that reflects on work o Style that focuses on musical texture o Micropolyphony  Multiple lines going on at the same time o Fresh and new kind of sound o Wall of sound o Use of voices suggests of traditional coral music o Clip #1- When apes sense something strange and jump around rock  Music creates a momentous and something strange happening  Level of music will increase and sound effects won’t be heard  Oppressive effect is given o Notorious for difficult to interpret o Not much talking o Prominent music, extensive cues o Open ended o Clip 2: When we move to the future, and we see a spaceship look like a wheel in space o Music is made to further the story o Very long cue, just keeps going and going o Elegant music played 1970s - Blockbusters o Extensive musical scoring o Films that are highly promoted - Turn to classic film scoring - Nostalgia from the past became a powerful draw o The past became popular - John Williams o Many blockbuster films  Jaws  First Encounter  Superman
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