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Lecture

Music 2II3 Popular Music 10.docx

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Department
Music
Course
MUSIC 2II3
Professor
Simon Wood
Semester
Summer

Description
Music 2II3 Popular Music: Post World War 2 Lecture 10 7/29/2013 2:14:00 PM Motown – soul music  Barry Gordy wanted to produce music TPA/division of labour  wanted to pump out production  classy and sophisticated  good sound quality and efficiency  controversy – Gordy wanted his clients to appear classy, sophisticated o people that he was being racist -- he wanted to ―whiten his audience‖  Motown records bought by middle class whites – why it did so well The Supremes:  led by Diana Ross – not the best singer in the group o rappy quality to her voice  ―Stop in the name of love‖ (1965) – listening  motown o don’t find a lot of strong gospel voice in Motown like ray Charles – much more subdued vocal o greater control of strength and control o solid back beat intended for dancing (strong groove), o elaborate arrangements – a lot of carefully arranged vocal backgrounds – important  also arrangement of instruments – elaborate backing parts  TPA style -- division of labour  Made use of vibraphone o Large percussion instrument o bars are made out of metal instead of wood o bright shimmering metallic quality to it o by 1960s – instrument associated with jazz  before WW2 –jazz was viewed as suspicion with racism by middle class white culture  view of jazz changes  post WW2 (by 1960s)– jazz has become great American art forms, has become respected, now see universities studying jazz  great deal of sophistication for jazz  microphone – difference between one that costs 500 and one that costs 5000 o the ability to record high frequencies accurately  super high (good) microphones had the best frequency and octave  10 000 to 20 000  high frequency recording  gives a certain quality – a character that was appealing to whites o Motown used tambourine – little grooves cut into the wood  By putting a tambourine in the song he was making it more favorable to whites and gaining that high frequency quality   Meetings on quality and control  Nothing went out the door until gordy said so – had a say on every recording  consciously trying to create hit records – (―hitsville‖)  during meetings, get top ten charts recordings – listen to their recordings of the week and ask do they fit what is popular today o a lot of effort and thought o do we think they will work in terms of becoming hits  was a integrationist – meaning he believed that a great deal of difficulties that African Americans were suffering was because of the feeling within the community that African Americans wanted to remain distinct from white Americans – that if African Americans would stop worrying about being culturally unique, culturally separate than a lot of the problems of civil rights would go away o trying to maintain the distinct identity was the cause to the problems Atlantic records  Ray Charles ended up on this company when he was doing gospel  technically an independent record label because it never purchased its own national distribution network  only important BIG label that signed black artists for a long time  Jerry Wexler (1917 to 2008)  worked at billboard magazines before atlantic records  he was the guy who invented the term RnB at the end of 1940s, instead of race music  always tremendous supporter of black artists  signing a lot of black soul artists  sent out a lot to Memphis – to stax Stax  Memphis – ―soulsville USA‖  formed in 1959 – originally called satellite records changed to stax, in 1961  formed by Jim Stewart and Estelle Axton  few similarities with Motown o used a house band for all its recordings – booker T and the MGs o fully integrated band in Memphis, not like Motown who had African americans o were in the movie blues brothers o in Memphis some places still illegal for black and whites to perform together o biggest difference how the record was reproduced  Motown used multitrack recording  in Motown –every note was analyzed final say was always Berry Gordy o stax didn’t use multitrack recording  atlantic records sent stax a multitrack recording they didn’t use it  recorded everything monitored –rehearsed then into the recording studio – like old school  decided as a group which one was going to be released  stax records have a lot of mistakes on them – Motown has none  important thing was the feel, the energy of the performance  listen on giant speaker Otis Redding:  stax artist  soul – way you play the song  ―try a little tenderness‖ (1966) – listening  AABA – TPA song written in the 1920s  hit for bing crosby in 1933  motown put its focus on the singer  band isnt visible o if they are visible, they are way back in the dark  why? TPA aesthetic/white aesthetic  project more out to the audience  STAX -- band is visible, way up front  more of a collective aesthetic (where everyone is involved), as opposed to individual o this is west African aesthetic  when he sings he closes his eyes for a long period of time, where the music would take you is what matters  a lot of sweat, motown artists always had to look effortless  cathartic performance – unrestrained energy  vocal aesthetic of stax was much more influenced by heritage of gospel (heritage of ray Charles) Sam and Dave  ―soul man‖ – 1967 – listening  still the optimistic sound  "soul‖ as a term for African American identity black culture o describe something as soul – connotation to black  mistake: missed a note, this would not even dare pass Motown o mistake of omission –happens after the chorus  energy was the key – difference between Motown and stax  difference in sound quality o Motown made use in higher frequency (like the tambourine)  High frequency not common with blacks  deliberate with their recordings  no background vocals in stax – the level of arrangements are far less elaborate  Motown is product oriented (like the beatles)  Stax is process oriented (like rolling stones)  Both are soul  in 1966 – atlantic begins working at FAME  aretha franklin came out of the
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