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Music 2T03 Course Notes

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Dave Gerry

Intro September-08-11 4:17 PM Objectives • Gain an understanding of current state of music in Canada through an overviewof Canadian Music History • The role and importanceof Canadian Music Centre as a resource • Meet and talk to local composers • Attend a concert featuring Canadian composers Materials No courseware or textbook PDFs on A2L Books on reserve at Mills Canadian Music Centre - Assessment Tests - 2 x 10% Concert Thing - 20% Assignment - 30% Final Assignment - 30% ListeningTest October-05-11 4:46 PM 5 or 6 selection Worth 10% of final grade For each piece • identify work and composer(if applicable) (1 mark) • 2 important points about the work (2 marks) • The will be one "unknown selection" ○ But really obviously connected to somethingin class Test 2 Hetu - Woodwind Quartet Colgrass - Old Churches Morawetz- Martin Luther King Somers - Picasso Suite Miller - Bel Canto Ho - Ice Path Percy Faith - A Summer Place La Bolduc - Ca va Venir Moe Koffman - Swingin' Shepard blues Wilf Carter - Swiss Yodel Joseph Allard - le mere Blanche Southam - Glass Houses Somers - Kuyas Tremblay - Les Vents Sifflements Concert Review/Report September-21-11 4:33 PM 20% of Mark Attend a concert that features: a Canadian composition,composer,performer,style Why did you go? Brief background sketch on the music presented? - Why is it important? What did you hear? What did you like/dislike? Presentation/Paper October-19-11 4:34 PM 30% Final 2 Choices • Short paper (3-4 pages) • In class presentation (10 minutes max) ○ Canadian Composerof Performer ○ An important composition ○ A specific genre ○ Performanceof a Canadian composition ○ Canadian music festival, … Step 1 • Think about possibilities • Meet with prof next Tuesday or Wednesday • TSH 416 When? • In class presentation will be scheduled Nov. 14-30 Lecture 1 - Exploring the Sounds of Canada September-12-11 4:31 PM • About 90% of human communicationis non-linguistic ○ Music involveslanguage, but can also relay non-textual messages we respond to in several ways ○ Sensory • What is noise and what is music ○ Innate developmentalaspects  Humans like consonant music over dissonant  Enculturation  Formal training Your sense of music • What did you grow up listening to? • Lessons? A Canadian Sound • Is there a Canadian Sound? • Influences • Landscape Rubbaboo - blending of multicultural influences Traditional Musical Expressions of the First People • NW Coast music • Use of music to verbally relay values, morals, traditions • Importance of supernatural beings • Songs, dance, theater Potlatch • Winter ceremonyto celebrate new lodge, raise totem pole, birth, marriage, death, etc. • Several thousands attending • Songs conceived through dreams, visions, spiritual experience • Elaborate masks • Each song performed4+ times • Mourning song, dance song, feast song • Songs associated w/ lineage can only be performed by a memberof that family • Enhanced reputation of host • Linked identity and lineage • Made illegal in Canada in 1884 Plains - The Cree • Canada and US • Importance of drum • Circular motion • Song • Dances could last several days Ojibwe • Northern Ontario • Drums • End-blown flutes • Legends and spirits • Legends and spirits The Arctic • Work song • Personal songs • Games • Melodic contour (small as a second, wide as a tenth), pentatonic • Throat singing Throat Singing • Test of control & strength of breath • Winner is the one who last the longest without laughing • Mostly womenand girls • Alteration of syllabic/rhythmicpatterns, 6 inches apart • Inhale and exhale rhythmically in canon Maritimes • Song and dances • Instruments: rattles, drums, sticks • Flutes - further east more use of end blown flutes Elements to Remember • Melodic contour: no uniform type, but there is a tonal centre • Importance of landscape • Rubbaboo Lecture 2 - Music and French Settlers September-14-11 4:33 PM • First account of music in Canada from Cartier in 1534 • Likely first European music in 1535,when Cartier landed in Montreal, also masses celebrated by French priests at this time • Champlain and "L'Ordre de Bon Tempes" ○ Order of Good Times  Organization he started when he cameto boost moral  Social group • "A la Claire Fontaine" - song sang at the start of these meetings ○ Frenchsong but now is engrained as a Quebec folk song Music in New France • Religious Music • Frenchfolk songs • Current notated music from France Religious Music • Gregorian Chant Trying to reproduce music being sung in France ○ • 1606 poet Marc Lescarbot notes use of "alleluyah" in Aboriginal music • Use of spectacleto attractFirst Nations • Vielle, viol, lute and by 1645,violin, guitar and flute Jesous Ahatonia • "'Twas in the Moon of Wintertime" • First extant example of a "cantique" (sacred song) used for conversation • Jean de Brebeuf (1593-1649) • Hurons near Georgian Bay • Published in 1913 Music We Know was Performed • Campra • Charpentier • Jaques de la Guerre • Chant books • Motets • No record of any that may have been composed here Organ Building • 1657 in Jesuit Chapel in Quebec City • Copies made by priests • 1667 "Organ Book of Montreal" ○ FrenchMusic and guidelines for performances ○ Brought to Montreal by Jean Girard • 1721 organ built for Notre-Damein Montreal Lecture 3 - Old World Roots and New World Songs September-15-11 4:28 PM Marius Berbeau • Collected 4000 songs ○ Notated them ○ Over 2000 sets of texts • Analyzed by region • Quebec City and Gaspe: Ballads, Narratives Roots of Folk Songs • Date back to medieval • Hundreds of versions • Melodic contour: 1st phrase has a 3rd, 5th, often to a high point, then back to tonal centre • Small number of pitches • Very different contours from First Nations melodies • At most 2 pitches per syllable • 2/4, 4/4, 6/8 meter most common Les Coureuers-de-Bois • French traders travelled inland on rivers and lakes • Skills to love off land • Many of mixed heritage • Paddling songs - 2 phrase structure, call and response ○ Helped to do 50 strokes per minute Music for Dancing • Used folk song tunes • Use of violins • Fife and drums from miliatry • Tambourin (pipe and tabor) • Acadians came from Poitu famous for instrumentalistsand dancers Acadia • Different repertoire • Historical themes • Soldiers/sailors • Grand Chansons • Popular imagery • Children's songs Music Traditions • Expelled from Canada during war (1755-1763),forced removalby British • Deported to US Colonies, later to England, France, someleft for Upper Canada • Led to death from disease • Many fled to what is now Louisiana Acadian Music • Fiddle music • "A Saint Malo" • Rhythmic characteristics ○ Triple metre ○ Strong beat ○ Quick and lively Very clear beat ○ Very clear beat • Melodic characteristics ○ Not a wide range ○ Repetitive ○ 3rd's and 5th's Lecture 4 - Music from Europe: Secular Music of New France September-19-11 4:28 PM Classes of Society • "Seignurial system",division of societyinto classes • Folk song and dance music: the habitants • Gradually musical resources and repertoireincreased beyond church as colony grew • Ie. Fife and drum players would have played military marches and adapted them for use in New France • When Habitants took over defense, morefolk songs used • More elaborate musical events in house of upper class • Upper class would have been aware of current music and literary trends in France • 1645;Corneille's "Le Cid" presented in Quebec, First Nations people present Music amongst the Upper Class • Church tried to regulate secular music • 1694,banned Moliere's "Tartuffe" • Private libraries • Over 100 musical titles • Louis Verrier (1690-1758)owned 10 musical books, including works of Boismortier • Books of minuets and vaudvilles • Lully, Corelli, Clerambault, Monteclair, singing treatises Music among the Clergy • Taught singing, harpsichord, viol • Copies of Hotterre'sbook on flute playing • Owned method books on flageolet, bassoon, drum and serpent • Works by Rameau and Couperin • Used secular tunes for sacred texts in early 18th century Musical Instruments • Same instruments often used for sacred and secular music • Violins, viols, flutes, spinets, harpsichord, organs, drums • First documented ball: 1667 • Bombardes - pocket instrument - travelled well ○ Imported for trade with the natives ○ Extremelyloud Types of Music • Solo keyboard concerts,viol concert • Trio sonotas (2 violin/fluteparts) and keyboard with viol • Arrangements of operas • Many duets The Church • Tried to prohibit dancing and other leisure pursuits • Upper class tried to have same activitiesas their counterparts back in France Leisure Time • Remember,these pastimes were "grafted" onto a drastically different way of life • The importance of the canoe • Trapping • Hunting • Fishing • Long wilderness journeys Balls in New France • Favourite form of entertainment in France • 1722:reports of dances held from end of Advent until Easter • "Womenlove to dance, and do it well." • Necessary skill for Upper Class • If you couldn't dance, you missed out • Wedding balls : 5 consecutivenights! • Dancing masters, often used a poche (small fiddle 3 or 4 strings, primitaivebow) • Last all night Dances • Minuets • English country dances adapted in France • Some manuscripts found • Contredances • Works for flute (Balvet, Naudot) • Tambourins • Much same repertoire as in France Living Conditions • Forts with walls 2-3 feet thick • Iron stoves in 1668 • Winter: sleigh and skate parties • Dancing • Lavish parties Music in N.F. • Music heard similar to music in France, little influence of Canadian landscape on that type of music • Long distance travel: adaption of folk songs • Missionaries: rubbaboos • Adaptions of First Nations music by missionaries??? ○ Some hints of this Lecture 5/6 - Music the British Brought to Canada September-21-11 4:30 PM The British Conquest • Early 1700's French controlled from NFL to the Praries, North almost to Hudson's Bay, south to Ohio and Mississippi valleys to Louisiana, 70,000 colonists • Britain: more than 1M colonists • Lots of skirmishes between the 2 groups • 1745 siege of Louisbourg, reference to music • Expulsion of Acadians • 1758 - farms destroyed, 80% of Quebec City in ruins • 1763 - "Canada" Detroit river to the Gaspe, north to Lake Saint John ceded to British • France left with Saint-Pierre et Miquelon, NS, PEI British Band Music • Importance of military band, fifes and drums • 1762: Bands must have: 2 trumpets, 2 Fr. Horns, 2 bassoons, 4 oboes or clarinets • Must also be able to play "cello, bass, violin and flute" • British usage: "Band" was winds and strings • Dancing, church, concert, theater • Importance of bands right up to 20th century Band Music • Some compositions still survive • Arrangements of popular tunes, including Fr. Canadian folk songs Music for Dancing • Core music for any kind of public dance • Newspapers ○ Lots of notices about dances • Country dances: generic term ○ A variety of types of dances that have roots in England • Playford: The English Dancing Master (1651) • Minuet • Scotch reels: "dazzle" the onlooker with fancy footwork • Cotillions & Quadrills: 4 couples face each other in a square • Jigs and Clog dances • Hornpipes • All these types of dances introduced in the 18th century • An integral part of Canadian life for all levels of society • Visitors remarked on number and frequency of dances • "Dance crazes from Europe!!" ○ The Waltz Fiddle Music • The fiddle was the most common instrument • Dance music is the foundation of Canadian fiddle traditions Celtic Women • Originated in British Isles and Continental Europe: Scottish, Irish and French • Hudson's Bay Company ○ Helped spread the music as a lot of workers played fiddle • The Metis ○ Mixed marriages (British and First Nations) ○ Mix of traditions Importance of PEI • Discourage fiddle contests, encourage their own traditions • As a result, "homogenized" style not found here • Locally composed tunes and tunes brought by settlers • Bowing and clogging ○ PEI fiddlers use a "saw stroke" on the fiddle ○ One note per stroke ○ Avoid arm fatigue • Players play seated so they can use their feet easily ○ Heel and toe ○ Rhythmic patterns with feet • Ornamentation • Celtic tradition of ornamenting tunes ○ Very elaborate Vocal Folk Music • Ballads: 5 or fewer pitches, pentatonic, modal • "Barbara Allen": one version in every province, but all tell the same story • Broadside: 17th c. printing well-established in England ○ Profit to be made printing ballad texts (sometimes tunes) ○ Using 7 pitches at times Broadsides about Canada • Earliest known: "England's Honour Revived" (1628) Music 2T03 Page 12 • Earliest known: "England's Honour Revived" (1628) • Capture of Louisville celebrated • Lament on the death of General Wolfe, some of these found there ways to Canada • Emigrants brought with them, letters telling relatives to send British Folk Songs • Lyric folk songs • Fairy tales ○ Fairies, pixies, leprechauns • Animals • Riddles, jokes • Proverbs • Many are poetic, of Irish providence • "She's Like the Swallow" ○ Assoc. with Irish immigrants and NFL Church Music • Anglican tradition, some Catholic, some Calvinist • Training of music for service • A service in Fergus, ON: call and response, no organ, use pitch fork • Scottish tradition of 'singing schools' Concerts and the Stage • British bureaucrats & tradesmen who came here were accustomed to concerts and theater • French regime: these activities were frowned upon by church • 1765: first public theater presentation • 1770: concert series • 1780: concert every 2 weeks in winter C.D. Argenson: "Royal Fusiliers' Arrival" • Quebec notary • Composed in 1791 • Written for piano, then band Music at Concerts • Tavern assembly rooms: at first, jugglers, magicians, actors • 1790's: music that would have been heard in any sophisticated Europe city Halifax • Plays • Ballad operas (most by composers forgotten today) • Lots of music (symphonies, concerti, chamber music) Quebec City • French opera overtures • Works by Corelli, Handel, Avison • A performance of Handel's "Messiah" in 1793 • Italian opera arias • Songs • Productions in English and French Joseph Quesnel (1746-1809) • First original Canadian opera • Native of Saint-Malo • Composer, violin • "Colas et Colinette" • Published in 1808 • Operas have been reconstructed and performed in the last century What to remember: • Transplanted many genre of music • Some transformed here • Substitution of Canadian names and terms • Change in tunes due to French and Aboriginal influences • Voyageur-style singing • Rubbaboo Music 2T03 Page 13 Lecture 7/8 - Moving into the 19th Century September-26-11 4:26 PM Major Political Changes • 1769 Britain separated PEI from NS, created provinces of NB and Cape Breton • Importance of fur, timber, wheat • Political tensions between Upper and Lower Canada • By 1850, around this area: booming population, canals, industrial growth • Cultural heritage of settlers Societal Changes • Higher standards of living • More employment • More money Pre-Confederation Music • Availability of more music and musical instruments ○ And greater variety • Kitchen parties ○ East coast tradition ○ Played music together gathering in warmest room of the house (kitchen) • Sacred and secular music making • Band concerts ○ Essential part of town in Canada Music at Sharon Temple • Tiny town, just North of Toronto • For may years it was a place for religious gatherings, abandoned as the religion fell apart • Started again in 80s when group of musicians needed a place to play • The Children of Peace, founded by David Wilson • Temple built in 1825 • Wedding cake style building, small pipe organ • Band climbed a "Jacob's Ladder" to a musicians gallery on 2nd floor • Congregation separated by sex ○ Many women were also musicians Music Publishing • 1800: books of chant published for Catholic church • Also books of hymns for Protestant church, including some in First Nations languages Music Notation • Sol-fa ○ Using Do-Rea-…. • Shape Notes ○ Roots in Appalachian music ○ Combination of hand signals and shapes ○ Would have been the norm in some communities • Round notes ○ Our usual form of notation Singing • Sunday afternoon singing schools at church Musical Organizations • Singing societies in larger centres, performing Hayden, Handel ○ Not seeing so much Bach (as the great Bach revival [Mendelsonn] has yet to happen in Britain) Establishment of musical academies ( St. John, 1805) ○ Establishment of musical academies ( St. John, 1805) ○ Establishment of more music programmes in church by highly trained musicians ○ Bands Homes & Small Towns • House concerts • Lots of accounts in letters and diaries • Orally-transmitted music vs. notation • Aurally transmitted music • Lumber camps • "Puritan" opposition (church) Touring Companies • A "company" may only be 3 or 4 musicians • As early as 1832, groups from England and Europe • Henry Russell (1812-1900), British popular songwriter & performer ○ "The Canadian Sleigh Song"  Staple in music halls in Europe • Operas by Mozart, Rossini, Bellini and more ○ Written and played by living composers • Development of railways in the 1850s • Famous artists: Jenny Lind, Anton Rubenstein, Henri Vieuxtemps, Gottschalk • 1850-52, symphony concerts Notated Canadian Music • Band music, many early works did not survive • Vocal music, most setting of contemporary poems, in Fr. or Eng., with simple accompaniments Keyboard Music • Increased availability = demand for music • Most of the keyboard music of this period intended for dancing or inspired by dance idioms • Women: expected to be accomplished musicians but not have the same professional oppertunities Women in Music • Published under pseudonyms • "Canadian Union Waltz" by "A Canadian Lady" ○ Perhaps Josephte Shepard? ○ Probably intended for dancing or pleasure playing Music Influenced by First Nations • Ernest Gagnon • Transcribed more than 100 Canadian tunes • "Stadacone: Danse Sauvage" ○ "Certain stylistic aspects of native music; including melodic and rhythmic repetition, open 5th's and marked accentuation" ○ Good example of rubbaboo theory ○ Using European musical idioms there is something Canadian that inspired it What Else? • Few orchestral and chamber works found • Composers beginning to express their own heritage • Looking at landscape July 1st, 1867 Music Clubs • A forum to hear annd create music • Important role in the development of young musicians • Duet Club of Hamilton (1889) • 10 of the 16 clubs founded in the 19th century are still active • 10 of the 16 clubs founded in the 19th century are still active • Fostering "New Music" Emma Albani • 1847-1930 • The best known 19th c. Canadian artist • Concerts across Canada • Important European artist ○ Unusual if you were from NA to be successful in Europe • Paved the way for a long line of singers Music in Schools • Role of music clubs • Early in the century: music teacher, instrument dealer, publisher might have been the same person • Singing schools • Notation taught in school • Standards varied in each province Musical Instruments • Keyboards reigned supreme • Organ builders in Que., Cassavant est. 1879 • Pump organs through Eaton's catalogue • 60 organ companies • Movement westward • Between 1816&1900, 200 companies making pianos • Melodeon Conservatories • Teachers banded together • Based on French system • Quebec - the Fr. System still prevails • In the US during this period: Peabody, Oberlin, NEC (New England Conservatory), Julliard • Toronto Conservatory 1886 ○ Music teachers wanting to emulate European methods • Professional training in school music taught piano tuning and hygiene(!) • Battles over exams Technology • Phonograph (1880's) ○ Access to everyone who could afford them ○ 1900: first CDN commercial recordings • Player piano • Nickolodeon Performing Organizations • Bands • Choirs • Montreal, Orchestra 1881 • Music festivals Compostitions • Composers studying in Europe, writing typical works (ie. Oratorio) • Calixa Lavalee (1842-1891), O Canada ○ Student in Paris, first Canadian work performed in Europe? ○ "La Papillion" • Orchestral works at the time rarely published ○ More interest in piano and vocal Vocal Works • Many works written • Many works written • oratorios • Patriotic works • Opera • Operetta • "opera house" • Art song • "Take you girl out to the rink, boys" Lecture 9 - Popular Music (19th C.) September-29-11 4:30 PM Prior to 1800 • There are passing references in Western music to a specific type of music preferred by a large segment of the population 19th Century • Genre of popular music emerged • "refined" music vs. folk music • In the US, "highbrow" vs. "lowbrow" ○ And we know which refers to popular music • Popular music: short duration, familiar materials, accessibility Used for • Dancing • Entertainment • Background sound • Ritual (group participation) ○ Military, church, patriotic • Oral traditions • Printed Types • Bands (come from British working class traditions) • The "Pleasure Garden" in 19th c. Britain ○ Highly decorated music hall • Dance hall • Music hall The Other Type of 19th C. "Hit" • Beethoven, Hayden, Mozart, Mendelssohn ○ These kind of works made it into Popular genre as well French Heritage • Remember "A la Claire Fontaine", popular 19th c. song ○ Changes in text • Lumber camps: centre of folk song tradition? • "Vive la Canadienne" ○ One of the earliest song with all Canadian text ○ Bigger range then other folk songs we have listened to Folk Songs in English • Lack of interest in "murder ballads", popular in US • Songs with 2 different languages ○ Macaronic • "Poor Little Girls of Ontario" ○ Railway songs, living conditions ○ Folk song transcriptions ○ Woman's POV on changing conditions 19th C. Fiddling • Continues to be popular • Cultural & regional traditions • Isolation and self-teaching • Reels and jigs, not waltz • Importance of beat, regardless of phrase structure • Newfoundland traditions ○ A lot of unison melodic lines together New Cultures New Cultures • Italians: mandolins, song traditions • Mennonites: choral singing • Ukrainian: bandura • Doukhobor: Russian vocal tradition • Chinese • Black Canadians: many came as slaves, later as refugees from US (Underground railroad) Published Music • Early days, hymn tunes • Dance music • Songs • Nationalistic songs • "The Maple Leaf Forever" - Alexandra Muir • "Lacrosse, Our National Game" - Henry Sefton'sarrangement of an old English melody • Newspapers • Collections of songs • Romantic songs • 25,000 songs published between 1849-1950 • A Hamilton hit, "When You and I Were Young, Maggie",George Johnson, 1864 Popular Entertainment • Travelling actors • Magic • Circus • Acrobats • Minstrel shows • Revue and Vaudeville • Wild West shows --------------------------------------- • "Have Courage my Boys, to Say NO!" • Song about temperance and morals Lecture 10/11 - Onwards to the Next Century October-03-11 4:26 PM 1914-1945 • Two world wars bookend this period • Political, economic,social and technological change More Change • Role of Women ○ Women as teachers ○ Taking leadership roles • Problemsstill as performers and composers • Linguistic tension in Quebec, "the two solitudes" • Not as much crossing in languages • 2 distinct units in music industry The Poor Piano • Skilled workers in demand at factories, left piano industry • Stock market crash ○ 1929:killed piano manufacturing The Depression • Between 1930-1940,unemploymentnever below 10% • Plunge in wages ○ Musicians paid poorly ○ Women as cheap labour • Rise in film industry • Fading of Vaudeville • Arrival of talkies I 1927 Orchestras • Groups of theater musicians banding together • Visits by American orchestras • Montreal, 1930s • Toronto:concerts in Massey Hall • TSO 1927 • Western orchestras RADIO!! • Signals from the US in the 20s and 30s • More stations established in Canada • At first, no commercials ○ Used for public service & education ○ CNR: radio transmitters,stations in Ottawa and Moncton • When CNR abandoned radio, CRBC established in 1932 • CBC in 1936 The CBC • Ending isolation in Canada • Unity • US influence ○ Fighting back against this • Vital support of Canadian music and musicians • The National Film Board ○ Smartphone app!! Music and Tourism Music and Tourism • The role of CPR • Artists & photographers commissionedto do pictures to promoteCanada • Campaign to attract tourists • Railway hotels ○ Ie. Royal York • John Murray Gibbs collected songs. Importanceof helping performers and ensembles Folk songs in the New Century • Marius Barbeau (1883-1969)staff ethnologist(musicologist)at National museum • Over 3000 field recordings • Organized concert performances • Romanticism of folk music • Murray Gibbon's "Canadian Folk songs" • Festivals of folk songs and crafts • Musical competitions New Sounds • Visiting guest artists • New works (Stravinsky in 1936) • Sibelius, Milhaud, Bartok, Ravel, all visited Three Pioneers Ernest MacMillan ○ Son started musical foundation to help students continue careers • Trained in Paris • Was in Beyreuth when WW1 declared , became POW • Back in Canada, active as pianist, organist, teacher, examiner • Appointed conductor, TSO 1931 • Dean of Music @ U of T, 1924-1952 • Conductor, Toronto Mendelssohn Choir 1942 • Composition:importance of folk songs ○ "A Saint Malo" Healey Willan (1880-1968) • Born in England, movedto Canada 1920 • Teacher, examiner • Church musican • Choral music • "Tyrle Tyrlow" Claude Champagne (1891-1965) • Studied in Paris • Involved in developing musical training in Quebec • Use of Quebec fiddle tunes • "Danse Villageoise" Three Young Composers Colin McPhee • Studied in US, met Copland, Varese and Cowell • Travelled to Bali ○ "In Bali, music in not composed,it is rearranged" ○ Transcriptions of Balinese music • Tried: Folk, neoclassicism,dissonance ○ Gamelan  Hammered metal percussion instruments  Use of wooden flutes  Repetitiverhythmic patterns  Repetitiverhythmic patterns • Cross-rhythm,ostinatos, layered texture ○ 2 distinct rhythmic patterns at one time ○ Lots of different sonic ideas going • Importance of McPheein Bali • "Tabuh Tabuan" Barbara Pentland (1912-2000) • Studied at Julliard ○ Interested in what American composerswere working on ○ Exploring chance music  Choice in which sections to play where  ? • Counterpoint ○ 2 lines playing at the same time (set against each other) ○ "Commanta"  Exploring different times of timbre, within sections that are not metered • Pentland looking at Europeans traditions and general music sense of what was happening in the US Violet Archer (1913-2000) • Studied with Bartok in NYC ○ Hungarian ○ Pushed boundaries of harmony and rhythm • Graduate studies at Yale with Hindemith • Also studied with Schoenberg, Milhaud, Copeland • Teacher Lecture 11/12/15 - Early 20th Century Popular Music October-05-11 4:34 PM Center of popular music was in NYC Technology • Innovation in distribution • Phonograph ○ Records • First recordings released in Canada: 1900 • Singers ○ Hard to record ensembles • Pedagogical recordings Radio • Frist radio station in Canada. 1919,Montreal • Dominant medium for determining popularity • 1928:60 station is Canada • Role of mechanical music industries • "levelling effect" of taste • Middlebrow ○ The idea of not being extreme in either direction (highbrow or lowbrow) The Player Piano • Popular songs ○ Here popular music played by an instrument in your own home • Huge demand for player piano rolls • 56% of piano production • "musically democratic" ○ Didn't have to have skill to play the songs but you could hear it whenever you wanted to US Influences • Refrains extended into chorus, often sung by a group • Effects of text: rhyme, structure, length • 8 or 16 bar sections • ABAB, ABA • Strong tonal centre • Structure carry over into 20th century Tin Pan Alley • West 25th St. in NYC Canadians in TPA • Songs often reflected technological advances • "Oh What a Difference Since the Hydro Came " ○ Claude Graves, London, ON, 1912 ○ Scottish themes Some Popular Songs • Patriotic songs: WW1 songs, WW2 songs, For the Glory of the Grand Old Flag" • Raymond Roberts (Ernest Seitz): "The World is Waiting for a Sunrise", 1919 ○ Recorded by over 100 artists  Including Billie Holliday, Chet Atkins, Duke Ellington  Can't say that for any songs recorded in the early 1900s Ragtime • Characteristics • Characteristics ○ Syncopations ○ Right hand: "ragged" rhythms ○ Left hand: steady rhythm ○ Modelled on European-derived duple meter marches ○ Four strains ○ Shelton Brookes:"Someof These Days" (1910)  Ended up on US hit parades as well • Slowly disappeared • Popularity of dance bands and jazz groups • Revival in 60s and 70s • Dances (Charleston, Jitterbug, etc.) Nathaniel Dett (1882-1943) • Born in Niagara Falls • Learned to play by ear at first • Serious piano student • Composedpiano works • Song as an expression of heritage • Arranges traditional spirituals ○ Composedworks that were inspired by African American/Canadian music traditions • Faculty memberin US • "Juba" dance for piano Entertainment • "The Dumbells", soldiers' comedy group in WW1 to entertain the troops, singers, comedians, musicians ○ Always at least 1 female • Toured country • Musical revue • Hit song Guy Lombardo and His Royal Canadians • Formed in London, ON in 1914 • Brothers • Slower arrangements • Medleys • Unique sound ○ Saxophone used vibrato based on flute ○ Trumpet singing sound • Subtle beat • 1929:30 year stint at RooseveltGrill in NYC • Core group: 2 trumpets, trombone,3 sax (no baritone), 3 clarinets, 2 pianos, guitar, tuba, drums • NBC weeklyradio show • 200 songs written • Had a "sweet,commercialsound" • "Auld Lang Syne" • "Harbour Lights" Other Successful Canadians • Beatrice Lillie • Deanna Durbin Deanna Durbin • Operatic voice • Made to Hollywood Popularity • Role of Radio • Role of Radio ○ Gaining in importance • Live Music ○ Dance bands were really big • Dance bands in hotels • Royal York Hotel ○ Top acts in Canada and US played here Happy Gang • Daily CBC radio broadcasts (1937-50) ○ Music  Variety shows ○ Comedy ○ Theater Percy Faith • Started as organist for silent films • CBC Music director • Arrangements for US shows • Recording moodmusic • "dreamy orchestral settings" • Influenced by Gershwin: quasi-latin percussion, complex sync. • Instrumental stylist • Even a little bit of rock • "easy listening" • "Theme from a Summer Place" ○ Lots of strings ○ Steady beat ○ Rock derived triplets ○ "Adult Contemporary" Popular Music in Quebec (post-WW2) • Rural to urban shift ○ Such strong roots to folk music ○ During WW2 we start to see more emphasis on urban culture • Folk music ○ Still remained popular • "Illustrated songs" ○ Slides of hits from latest hits in US, orchestra would play the music to the song • "City Music" (dance, operetta, vaudeville) • Cinemas ○ Targeting Fr. Audience ○ European films, English films being pushed towards French Marie Travers (La Bolduc) (1894-1941) • Not typical pop-music star • First Quebec singing star • Multi-instrumental • Worked as a maid at 13 • Married, raised large family • Got enough money to cut her own record • Song writer ○ Became extremelypopular ○ 12000copies • Variants of folk songs, personal songs ○ Wrote from experience • Famous for "turluter" • Famous for "turluter" ○ Like scat singing Quebec • Radio signals in 1930stoo weak to reach rural areas • Mostly English language stations heard • Resonance of: cowboy life, family, open spaces ○ Country music • French songs in similar veins ○ Iconic imagery that resonated with Quebec listener • "La Bonne Chanson" folk song collection ○ Book of folk songs • Fiddling still vital Joseph Allard (1873-1947) • Competitionwinner (fiddle) ○ Sometimesspeed, improvisation,execution • Recording for RCA in 1928 • Influenced by Irish and American traditions ○ American radio broadcasts ○ Interesting hybrid of different styles • Personal style • Influenced new generation of young fiddlers ○ Records, radio • Less melodic,for rhythm (dance character) ○ Quick ornamentation Lecture 16/17/18 - Early 20th Century Popular Music - Part 2 October-13-11 4:29 PM Anglophone Folk Traditions • Quebec folk music closer to people • Collection of these published in 1930 • Wade Hemsworth ○ One of the most important folk singers pre-1950 ○ Many of his song considered "Canadian Folk Anthems" ○ "The Blackfly Song" ○ The "Canadian experience Don Messer (1909-73) • Important figure in Canada • Self-taught violin • Radio show (6 times a week) - "Don Messer's Lumberjacks" • "Don Messer and His Islanders" from PEI • 1956 - "Old Time Music" TV broadcasts • Show cancelled in 1969by CBC - National outcry • "straight ahead style" = "down east style" • Emphasis on melody - true to traditions ○ Let his sidemen elaborate • Importance of fiddle in Canadian country music • Had a very popular singer Country Music • 1928 (?) - rise of large conglomeratesfor recordings companies • Canadian companies:recording elsewhere ○ Exception:Montreal; folk and country artists • Cowboysongs - 1930s ○ Ranch hands & First Nations among the majorityof this subgenre • Why did it become popular? ○ Depression ○ Reaction to technologyand society Popular Genres • Fiddlers • String bands • Gospel • Yodelers • Balladeers • At first called "Hillbilly music" - later country Two Persona • The Mountaineer ○ Lumberjack,outdoorsman • The Cowboy • "freedomand independence" • Seen in film and stage shows • TPA Early Canadian Country Singers • Bob Nolan ○ Formed "Sons of the Pioneers"  Played up cowboy Fusion of fiddling and "jazz" ○ Fusion of fiddling and "jazz" • Wilf Carter ○ Nova Scotia born ○ Swiss yodeling technique  His ticket to fame ○ Working cowboy - ranch hand & sang on the side ○ Radio star ○ "Montana Slim"  Stage persona • Hank Snow ○ Another Nova Scotian ○ Radio star in 1930s ○ Star at Grand Ole Opry in Nashville, TN ○ Matching outfits ○ Electric instruments ○ Speak-singing Early Jazz • First heard in Canada in Vaudeville shows • 1914 in Winnipeg, term "jazz" used for the Creole Band • Usual ensemble at the time: piano, cornet, clarinet, percussion • Loud and fast • Saxophones and vaudeville ○ French instrument ○ Projectedwell • Sax ensemble from Ottawa, "Six Brown Brothers" 1908(blackface) • Popularity of sax ensemble More Sax • "Original Winnipeg Jazz Babies", 1919 • 7 teenagers • Toured Canada • Winnipeg Musician's Union • "Jazz players ineligible for membership" • Vancouver, 1917 - musician's union admitted a Black musician, George Paris ○ Athletic trainer  Fight manager, heard lots of American jazz ○ Canada's first true jazz musician? Maybe. Jazz Out West • Integrated bands ○ More integration out west • "Hot dance" tunes • Musical Hubs - Calgary and Edmonton • And in Montreal ○ Vibrant hub for black musicians ○ Many visiting musicians due to prohibition in US  Why Montreal? Possibly most direct trains ○ Local record companies Big Bands, Swing, Bebop • Toronto: slow to accept new sounds ○ Reputation of not being a hip, happening place • 1930s:dance orchestra • "Imperial Room Orchestra" 1936 • "Imperial Room Orchestra" 1936 ○ In Toronto and Banff  Black musicians: trouble with segregation, unable to join union • Early 1940s:rise of new generation of young musicians • Clement Hambourg's studio on Bay Street (1941-70s) ○ For musicians not able to play what they wanted in clubs ○ Attracted the new generation • Hagood Hardy • Moe Koffman - jazz flute • Norman Symonds - jazz and classical fusion Lecture 19/20 - Canadian Performers and Creators October-20-11 4:32 PM Post-WW2 Canada • Canada played an important tole • Great cost but unlikeEurope, not in ruins • Mining • Forestry • Hydro • Uranium • Oil and gas reserves • Result? ○ Prosperity and jobs And for the Arts • Government funding established • New medium of TV leads to changein all areas of performers • Would lead to Centennial celebration at Expo '67 Music Education • Rise of private studio • European teachers ○ Bengiman Brittain, Bartok • Greta Kraus - refugee from Nazis arrives in Toronto ○ Jewish musician ○ Broughtidea of singing songs by 19th centurycomposers ○ Popularized harpsichord ○ Coached many singers ○ Toronto Baroque Ensemble  One of first groups to perform Baroque • Early music today- can trace back to Kraus or one of her students Tommy Reilly • 1919-2000 • Guelph • Ended up spending most of his career in England • Served in Canadian forces, married and settled in Britain • World's leading classical harmonica player • 30 new works (written for him to play) • Film and TV soundtracks • One of first Canadians to have international success Conservatorie de Musique du Quebec • Founded 1942 • Network of 7 schools • Based on European model • Offers beginner level to pre-university/concurrent with university • Teaching and performance impact has been considerable due to funding University Level Music • Until mid-1940s, only music compositionrecognized at the university level but training was minimal • 1945: B Music at UofT • 3 year degree (2 if you had ARTC) • Performance degrees, late 60s • Lack of composition teachers • 1950s and 60 followed American models for music faculties rather than conservatories Developments at U of T • First Opera program • Musicology mid '50s • 1955: Orff • 1955: Orff • Electronic music • First dedicated music building in Canada, 1964 ○ Helped every other Uni. In Canada get their programs runningand funding University Music Standards • Canadian University Music Society, 1965 • 1969: curriculumstandards • Musicology became official discipline • Ethnomusicology • Electronic music • Finally education programmes in a range of disciplines within Canada • At the time no pop music or jazz (but Americans were not studying these either) Performance • Canadian orchestras thrive ○ Establishment of more orchestras • Few opportunities for women • Montreal Women's Symphony, 1940 ○ Included standard repertoire, new works by women ○ Carnegie Hall, 1947 • NationalYouth Orchestra, 1960 ○ 37% of NYO alumni professional players in Canadian Orchestras Opera • 1946: Toronto Conservatory • Nazi refugees, including Nicholas Goldschmidt • Smetna "Bartered Bride", 1946 • CBC Opera Company • Festivals in Toronto and Edmonton • Canadian Opera Company, 1950 • Crucial role in Opera in Canada • Tour management in handsof US companies (untilmid-70s) More Important Developments • CBC Young Performers Competition, 1959 • Singing Stars of Tomorrow (1943-1956) • Opportunity Knocks (1947-1957) • Nos Futures Etoiles (1947-1957) Rise of the Canadian Performer • Canadians on the international stage ○ Mainly vocal and pianists • Lois Marshall • Maureen Forrester • Glenn Gould Singers • What do you listen for? ○ Vocal tone ○ Expression ○ Communicative ability ○ Message Florence Foster Jenkins • Exteamly wealthy • Producedannualconcerts at Carnegie Hall • Infamous due to how horrible she sang Instrumentalist • Listen for? ○ Tone ○ Technique ○ Expression Louis Marshall (1924-1977) • International career as a soprano, later a mezzo • Able to do trainingalmost all in Canada ○ Royal Conservatory and U of T • Competition winner ○ CBC Young performers ○ Opportunity Knocks • Associated with Toscanini and Beecham • Debuts as Carnegie Hall and in Europe • Had polio as a child always had troublewalking, butdidn't use braces • Though most disabled people were not able to be stars she opened doors for later generations • Primacy of the song • "A Fond Kiss" ○ From CBC farewell concert ○ Scottish folk song ○ Arranged by Henry Willam Maureen Forrester (1930-2010) • Born in Montreal • Contralto ○ Low alto • Competition winner • Always insisted on being paid in $US • European and Carnegie Hall debuts • Associated with Leonard Bernstein and Bruno Walter • Mahler, Handel ○ Canadian composers commissioned work for her • "Blow the Wind Suddenly" ○ John Newmark. Piano ○ Fabulous diction ○ Beautiful tone • Key to having successful career ○ Get paid in cash before you leave ○ Teach you kids to cook as early as possible • Communicative composers Jon Vickers (1926-????) • Saskatchewan • Studied at RCM • Important international carrer: The MET, La Scale, Convent Garden • Heldentenor (heroic tenor) • "intensity, power" • Continued to sing well into his late 60s ○ Vocal training the reason Glenn Gould (1932-1982) • Performance in 1962 with Leonard Bernstein (conductor)in NYC, NY Philharmonic,Brahms concerto in D Minor ○ Unorthodox performance, according to Bernstein ○ Not agreed upon by Bernstein, though he agreed to it because he respected Gould • Most infamous Canadian in any genre of all time ○ Best known, most celebrated pianist • Toward end of his life rented out auditoriums to conduct orchestras • Rejected much of the standard romantic repertoire • He loved Bach • Eccentric behaviour • Hummed while he was playing, conducted himself with one hand, used same stool/chair as when he was a kid (sat very low to the piano) • Did not like the piano all that much • Rejected the idea of practise time at the instrument per day • Perfectionist - would do 2-300 takes on a 6 or 7 bar section • Radio and TV documentaries • 2 piano teachers his whole life (Mother and one from the Conservatory) • 2 piano teachers his whole life (Mother and one from the Conservatory) New Directions • Tonality • Chance • Atonal • Nationalism • Jazz • Pop • Folk • Electronics • Hallmark: wide divergence of styles Lecture 21/22/23 - Mid-Century Modern October-27-11 4:27 PM The Canada Council • View pre-1940 "arts as an expensive luxury" • Donations from American foundations, such as Carnegie ○ Result: American influence • 1945:Canadian Arts Council ○ Explore what was important in Canadian culture and how to support it • 1950:Royal Commissionon National Developmentin Arts, Letters, and Science • Many Canadians unable to develop careers with weak infrastructures • Lagged behind European countries • Dependant on Universities • Lack of intrest in foreign countries in CDN works • Financial issues ○ Lack of sources • 1957:Canada Culture Act ○ Orchestra, theater companies,museums ○ Students applying for advanced study Canadian League of Composers • 1951 • Professionalism • Toronto Symphony??? Canadian Music Centre • Began with collectionof scores • 1959 in Toronto • Montreal, Vancouver, Calgary, Sackville ○ Can get scores for the cost of duplication • Promotionalwork ○ Canada and worldwide • Liaison between composer& performers • John Adaskin Project What are people listening to? • Don Messer • Percy Faith • Hank Snow • Wilf Carter • Maureen Forrester • Lois Marshall • Glen Gould The Hit Parade • Worldwide changes in pop music • Teenagers with money!! ○ Working against the sweet sounds their parents were listening to • Gisele Mackenzie- "Your Hit Parade" • 1950's Capitol Records, 5 Million discs • CHUM 1957,publishing hit parade chart ○ Dominationof US companies ○ Following canadian songs New Sounds/New Realities New Sounds/New Realities • Music and civil rights movementin the US • Barriers between "race music" and mainstream • Elvis • Blend of diverse musical elements In Canada • 1956:first rock and roll concert in Montreal ○ Press reaction  Infernal  Barbarous AmPop and Canadians • Juliette & the Rhythm Pals • The Crew Cuts ○ Clean shaven ○ Dressed nice ○ One of the first white group to perform R&B ○ Clean cut and wholesome ○ ShBoom ShBoom (1954)  Instrumental interludes  Smoothedover the original ○ Incorperate "race music" elements without losing audience • The Four Lads CanCon • Why go to US? ○ Place to record ○ Concert promotion • Few good recording studios • Lack of management • As CDN songs coveredinternationally, royalties • Establishment of branches of US companies • Canadian Recording Industry Assoc. • RPM Music Weekly: charts CDN hits for the first time, roots of national awards system • CRTC: 1971 Policy on CDN content ○ 30% content on AM radio had to be Canadian ○ The result?  Still regulate CDN content on radio • CanCon not welcomedby all • Still changes in support • Problemswith relationship between music communityand the public • Definition of "musical scene" Moving Along • Paul Anka (b.1941),heads to NYC 1957 • "Lonely Boy" (1959)#1 hit • World-wide pop sensation Popularity of Canadian Folk • 1950:half of Canadians in urban areas • Folk traditions still alive • Collectionsappear throughout the 60s • Radio and TV transmissions • Why should we care? ○ Defining our national identity ○ Connecting ourselvesto other Canadians • Gordon Lightfoot • Gordon Lightfoot • Ian & Sylvia • Joni Mitchell • Buffy Saint-Marie • Neil Young Ian and Sylvia • "Four Strong Winds" • Writing and playing their own music (new folk) after starting in folk music • Roots: folk and cowboy • Inclusion of folk songs during gigs Joni Mitchell Gordon Lightfoot - originally a jazz musician Is that all there is? • David Clayton Thomas (b.1941) • Blood, Sweat and Tears ○ Jazz and rock fusion  American musicians working with it but Thomas took it to a new level • Denny Doherty (b.1940) ○ The Mugwumps ○ The Mammasand the Papas In Quebec • Continued influence in folk • French language and tradition • Multicultural influences • "Chansonnier" ○ Felix Leclerc  Music about very political statementsby end of 60s ○ Gilles Vinneault  Imagery □ Comparing everythingCanada to winter □ Quebec more than a country □ Quiet revolution • Blues, gospel, jazz, James Brown • Fiddle... • Quebecpop • Robert Charlebois Musicals • Anne of Green Gables (1956)Harron & Campbell • 1965 - Charlottetown,PEI • 1967:Hair, music by Gail McDermott,b.1929 Mid-20th Century Jazz • Big band (Lombardo) • Touring costs leads to smaller bands • Bop Jazz ○ Oscar Peterson(1925-2007),Montreal  Age 15 - own radio programme  NY debut at 24  Soloist, composer,teacher • Moe Koffman ○ 1928-2001 ○ Study in Toronto  Started as saxophone  Started as saxophone ○ Moved to US in 1950 ○ "Swingin' Shepherd Blues" (1968) ○ Influential as a jazz flutist ○ Chose to use as a basis for improvisationas classical (Bach, Mozart, …) Lecture 23/24/25 - A Canadian Sound? The Old Guard & the Mavericks: Part 1, The Boys November-02-11 4:37 PM Change in Canada • Rapid change, nationally & internationally • Energy policy • Environmental • Free trade • Deficits ○ Cutbacks Cultural "Glue" • CBC • National Film Board • Canada Council ○ Support for all cultural institutions in Canada ○ Always about private versus public funding Oskar Morawetz • Born 1917,Czech Republic • Canadian citizen 1946 • Teaching at U of T, 1951 • Many awards • Among the most performedworks His Style • Proportion • Clear outlines ○ Easy to follow developmentin his pieces • Programmaticcontent ○ Depict non-musical elementsusing musical style • Integration of style and expression • Texture ○ What he chose for colour and combinations of instruments Memorialto Martin Luther King (1970) (for solo cello) • Commissionedfor Rostropovich • "Unusual orchestral colour" • Winds and percussion • 8 uninterrupted sessions • 1 - "Shock and despair" • 2 - "Sorrowful meditation" From the Diary of Anne Frank (1970) • Written for Lois Marshall to sing • Excerpt from Anne's diary, about her friend Lies, already sent to a concentration camp • Singing about a vision of her friend • Style? ○ More through composed ○ Narrative with music John Weinzweig • 1913-2006 • Born in Toronto,studied at U of T and Royal Conservatory • Born in Toronto,studied at U of T and Royal Conservatory • Left for USA in 1937 • Professorat U of T from 1952 • Canadian League of Composers ○ Founding member Style and Career • Diverse stylistic periods • Strauss • 12 tone ○ Effect on career • Moved away from atonality • Jazz, blues, rhythmic vitality ○ Played a lot of jazz and ragtime and his music started to take on this kind of style Private Collection • Voice and piano • On the CMC website, there is a recording of the composerspeaking about the songs • "Hello Rico!" Out of the Blues 4. Jumpin' Blues ○ 1982 ○ Wind symphony ○ Influence of jazz rhythms and blues scales • Continued influence • Performances • Teacher • Film scores ○ Could get away with atonality • "HockeyNight in Canada" (1985)(not the old CBC theme) Harry Somers (1925-1999) • Toronto (Royal Conservatory) • Study with Weinzweig • Serial music • Developeda very personal style Career • Many grants and prizes • Scholarship to study in France with Milhaud • Experimentswith jazz ○ Upon return to Toronto,wrote small pieces he wanted jazz people to perform and told them to improviseon his melodies • Music copyist • Guitarist • Not an academic Louis Riel (1967) • Considered to be first important Canadian opera • Based on Riel's life • French/English libretto • Kuyas- Lament ○ Sung by "Riel's wife" ○ Scored for solo voice, percussion and flute • Sadly, this work is neglected by opera companies today Picasso Suite (1964) • "light music for small orchestra" • "light music for small orchestra" ○ Strings, single winds and very spare use of brass • (4) Cubism ○ Picasso's period of angular, abstract paintings Women? • Barbara Pentland • Violet Archer • Both were active but did not hold academic appointmentsat this point ○ Took a long time for a woman be on staff at a university Norma Beecroft • Generation after the previous women • Born 1934 in Whitby • Artistic and scientific parents • Student of Weinzweig ○ Also with Copeland, Petrassi, Maderna ○ When she studied in Italy she had to write all of her papers in Italian • Electronic music • Association with CBC ○ Radio producer, host and director • Spent 20 years caring for her ailing husband did not write a single piece ○ But is starting to write again • Likes to write for flute and voice • "Piece for Bob" (1975) Hildegard Westerkamp Career • Born 1946,Germany • Studied in Germanythan UBC • Rural and urban soundscapes (voices, noise, silence, music, media) • "Breathing Room"(1990) ○ "breathing as a nourishing musical space" GovernmentSupport for the Arts • 1951 - Massey Commission • 1982 - Federal Policy Review on the needs of Canadian Culture ○ Shifted role of governmentfrom the proprietor & regulator to custodian, patron & catalyst ○ Rejected notation of art as a symbol of national unity ○ Culture - Canadianism ○ Commercialization - Americanism  If it was commercialyou were selling out to American way  Canadian way should not just be commercial Governmentand the Arts • 1995 - "An EconomicCase for GovernmentSupport": Independent report • Underlined importance of continued govt. support • Decreasein spending ○ Mid-90s • New federal regulations (ie. Tobacco $) ○ Could not attach their name to events, arenas, sports teams • Need for continued govt. support • But most important, need for awareness of Canadians of their own music New Sounds, New Direction • Soundscapes • Electronics • Atonality (although this was not really new) • Atonality (although this was not really new) R Murray Shaffer • Born 1933,Toronto • Writer, composer,educator, environmentalist ○ Expelled from U of T ○ Disgusted how students pandered to the teachers • Studied in Toronto and England • "soundscape" • Works for the outdoors ○ Feels you have to be there to appreciate this music • "The Crown of Ariadne" - for solo harp and percussion Others to Consider • John Beckwith ○ Born 1927 ○ Original works, revival of early Canadian music ○ Worked at editing early Canadian music, publishing it • Harry Freedman ○ 1922-2005 ○ Oboist and English horn at TSO ○ Musician, composer ○ Jazz influence  Some of his music has places to improvise ○ "Toccata"(1975) - solo flute, solo voice  No words - nonsense syllables (like scat singing, but not remotelysimilar) And in Quebec • Folk music, Claude Champagne • Influence of European traditions • Nadia Boulanger (Paris, France) (1887-1979) ○ Hard pressed to comeup with composerborn in US or Canada between 1920-1950who did not study with her • John Papineau-Couture(1916-2000) ○ Influential teacher, composer ○ Using teaching methods of Boulanger Jacque Hetu • 1938-2010 • Initial studies in Montreal • Worked with Boulanger, Messiaen, Dutilleux (veryslow worker) • Traditional forms ○ Concerto,sonata form • Sonority, colour, lyricism • Concerti, symphonies,chamber works • "Quintet for Winds" (1967) Lecture 26/27 - Important Voices November-09-11 4:30 PM Gilles Tremblay • Born 1932 • Educated in Montreal • Ended up in Paris ○ Worked with Messiaen • Darmstadt, Germany ○ Known for exploration of new sounds • Professor of analysis and theory • Concert presenter • Soundscapes ○ Using acoustic instruments ○ Exploring different kinds of music these could make ○ Combining electronics and acoustics • "Le Sifflement des Vents" (1976) ○ Flute and percussion ○ Colour possibilities of percussion ○ Interesting things with flutes  Breath, blowing, fingering Claude Vivier (1948-1983) • Known as a really strange person • Student of Tremblay • Legacy of 49 works • Continued studies with "avant garde" European composers but rejected style in favour of a more personal style • Search of family ○ Left on steps of a hospital ○ Bounced through many homes • Sexuality • Spiritual concerns ○ Very devout Catholic • Text from ancient sources ○ Rather than contemporary poetry • Teaching ○ Ottawa • Commissions and awards • Bali: role of the artist in society • Voice: invented languages ○ To suit his purposes • Modal melodies • Complex harmonies or no harmony • Panchromatic ○ From photography on colour and exposure ○ How you can change one single note by passing it along different instruments • Intersection of personallife and the professional • "Lonely Child" (1980) ○ Music was written first, then text ○ Solo singer, small ensemble ○ Imaginary language ○ Almost no harmony or counterpoint ○ Layers of sound ○ Voice integrated into layers, or set apart ○ Sound file from CMC • Atmospheric and middle range tempo • Atmospheric and middle range tempo Michael Colgrass • Born 1954 in Illinois • Trained as a percussionist ○ West Side Story premiere • Pulitzer Prize for music in 1978 • Emmy (1982) • Many international awards • Committed to working with young performers • Graphic notation • Creativity ○ Nova Scotia music curriculum based on his work • "My Lessons with Kumi • • "Old Churches" (2002) ○ Sound file from CMC ○ Graphic notation ○ Grade 9 band ○ Improvisatory sections ○ Percussion - metal mixing bowls Mary Gardiner (1932-2010) • Student at RCM and UofT • Early career as public school English teacher • Interested in composition ○ Had to seek out composers who were just getting hired • Lasting influence on Canadian music ○ Teacher  great at talking to her students ○ Adjudicator ○ Composer • Founding member, Alliance for Canadian New Music Projects • Association of Canadian Women Composers, founding member Her Style • Accessible • Tonal ○ Uses more than 1 tonal centre but never seems atonal/unlistenable • Breaking down barriers between students and new music • "The Legend of the First Rabbit" (1987) ○ Flute, cello and piano with narrator ○ Based on First Nation story Ann Southam (1937-2010) • Born in Winnipeg • Student of RCM and UofT • Long association with music for dance • Electronic music • Composer in the classroom- program Stylistic Changes • Early works: Romanticism ○ Derivative of the European tradition • 12 tone • Electronic (abandoned in 1990) • Minimalism ○ Repetition  Fragments repeated  Fragments repeated ○ Iteration • "What to do Until the Electricity Comes Back On" ○ 2000? ○ Written for Canadian Electronic Ensemble • "Glass Houses" ○ 1981 revised 1990 ○ Christina Petrowkasa Quilico ○ Explores repetitions of rhythmic ○ "Fiendishly difficult" ○ Has been described as piano music with the technical challenges of Liszt, and counterpoint of Bach Lecture 28 - More Voices November-14-11 4:29 PM Marjan Mozetich • Born 1948, in Italy of Slovenian heritage • 1952 - emigrates to Hamilton • Student of Weinzweig at U of T • Studies in Europe with Berio and others • Many international awards • Professor at Queens University ○ Maintained an independent career for a long time • Concerti and chamber works ○ Many works for harp Style • Avant-garde ○ Most of these works he has withdrawn • Minimalism • Post-modern romanticism ○ Term that is open for interpretation ○ Blend of traditional, popular and modern  Takes a traditional form and puts it into his own scope  Popular - melodic, received well by public "Postcards from the Sky: Unfolding Sky" • 1996 • Uses minimalismelements • Appeals to typical symphony audience (not scaring them or diverging from typical) Nicole Lizee • Born 1973 • Studied at Brandon University & McGill • Thesis: work for solo turntable and orchestra Left-Brain Right-Brain Lock the Door and Swallow the Key ○ Supported herself by working as a DJ at clubs • Written unusual combinations ○ Atari 2600 ○ Simon and Merlinhandheld games ○ Karaoke tapes • International awards • "This Will Not be Televised" (2007) ○ 7 players & turntables ○ Cassandra Miller • Born in Victoria, BC • Student at U of Victoria • Harpist • Studies in Europe • Lives in Montreal, directs new music series • 2011 Jules Leger Prize for New Chamber Music ○ Beginning of career kind of prize • "Bel Canto" Mezzo-soprano and Ensemble (2010) ○ For 2 simultaneous ensembles  A: alto flute, clarinet, guitar, mezzo-soprano  B: violin, viola, cello ○ Gives a lot of instructions in score ○ See avenue for her writing on the work ○ Based on Puccini opera Tosca ○ Uses instruments to exaggerate the vibrato ○ 2 layers - 2 ensembles playing similarpieces simultaneously • Posted a lot of her scores on website • Posted a lot of her scores on website Lecture 29 - Listen Up! November-16-11 4:32 PM Christos Hatzis • Born 1953,Greece • Initial studies in Greece • Studies at Eastman School & SUNY Buffalo • Professorat U of T • Awards • Compositions • World-wide performances ○ Many concertsdevoted entirely to his music ○ Up to 150 performancesof a single piece in a year The Music • Early Christian spirituality • Greek heritage • World music ○ Jazz ○ Pop • "Borderless culture" ○ How accessible music is he borrows a lot from other musical traditions • Bridge between classical a
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