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MUSIC 1A03 Lecture Notes - Jean-Baptiste Lully, Falsetto, Half Note

Course Code
Joe Argentino

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Two modes: 12 major modes or keys
12 minor modes or keys
Melodic Intervals
- Half step vs whole step
- Sharp sign- raises a note by half a step
- Flat sign lowers a note by half a step
Listen to the Star spangled banner in minor mode doesn’t sound as positive and has a more sinister
sound to it
Half steps is where you find characteristics and can tell us the pattern
All whole steps becomes a very important sound scape in late 20th century because there is no Hierarchy
Like keys the key signature tells us what flats and sharps to play
When looking at circle of fifths keys that are adjacent to each other are keys composers like to move to
because it is a small shift from getting from one key to another
Rhythm (ordering of music through time)
Meter: underlying patter of beats (usually what you are tapping your foot to while listening to a song)
Beats group into measures
Duple meter
Triple meter
Quadruple meter
Duple meter: two beats in a bar or measure 1 2| 1 2| 1 2| Strong weak, strong weak, strong weak
Triple meter: three beats in a bar or measure 1 2 3 | 1 2 3| first beat is accented strong weak weak,
strong weak weak
Quadruple Meter: four beats in a bar or measure 1 2 3 4| 1 2 3 4| strong weak medium weak, strong
weak medium weak
Whole note has 4 beats
Half note has 2 beats
quarter note has 1 beat
eighth note has ½ beat
sixteenth note has ¼ beat
thirty second note has 1/8 beat
Harmony : the union of multiple notes sung or played at the same time
Chord: three or more notes sounding simultaneously
A melody can be harmonized using chords in more than one way
Tonic: serves as a home base
Louis Moreau Gottschalk vs south city voices vs Stravinsky harmonic interval
September 14th Lecture 3
Harmony Melodies are horizontal, Harmonies are generally vertical
Chord is three or more notes sounding simultaneously
Harmonies support melodies up above
Harmony- the union of multiple notes sung or played at the same time
Melody- can be harmonized using chords in more than one way
Tonic- always serves as the home base
think of a home as a key where you start and you will come back to at the end
Some harmonizations are more controversial than others
Harmony South City Voices
- An Atlanta based vocal jazz ensemble, an a cappella group
- when listening to it what word could describe the harmony? Do you hear dissonance? Dissonance
creates tension. Tension is also created through other means such as a high note holding a really high
Harmony by Stravinsky (most influential in the 20th century)
Immigrated to USA in 1939 and became a citizen
- he arranged the American anthem
- performed in 1944 by Boston Symphony
- police confiscated the score
- threatened with being thrown in jail
Same with Jimmi Hendrix the star spangled banner live at Woodstock 1989
Harmony by Louis moreau Gottschalk
- American composter (see chapter 34) and piano virtuoso
-born in New Orleans
- Harmonized the American anthem after the Civil war in a piece entitled Union (Yankee doodle the star
spangled banner and hail Columbia)
-The composition is a response to the American Civil War
Acoustics and Timbre
- Pitch: highness or lowness of sound . Based on frequency or the number oscillations per second
- Microtonal is one pitch into four for example
- Height determines how loud the actual sound is
- If instruments are playing the same pitch the wavelength is constant but the pattern may
change (the wave would be what looks different)
- A sound thats reproduced electronically may not sound too great
- Dynamics: Volume of sound, ranges from very soft to very loud and is based on amplitude or
size of the sound wave
- in western music we have a lot of fixed pitchs and in old western they used to be manipulated
by creating different sound (bending the pitch)
- Notated:
o Pp(pianissimo) =very soft
o P(piano)= soft
o Mp (mezzo piano) = medium soft
o Mf (mezzo forte) =medium loud
o F(forte)=loud
o Ff(fortissimo)=very loud
- Timbre: unique sound of each instrument , created by overtones or partials in the sound wave
(overtones such as when a bell rings and you hear high frequencies after)
- Tritone with pedal vs non-pedal has more partials vs no partials
- One example vs Louis armstrongs version
Monophonic: single sounding
One single melodic line with no accompaniment
Soloist or group playing or singing a single melody (in unision) ***********
Homophonic: same sounding
A single melodic line with accompaniment (doesn’t have to be singing it could be someone playing)
Melody stands out above accompaniment
ex: marvin gaye American anthem would be homophonic because there are drums and other
instruments in the background
Polyphonic: many sounding
Multiple melodies of equal importance , two or more
Musical Form
Three Strategies: Repetition, Variation, Contrast
Subunits of form are designated using letters