MUSIC 1AA3 Lecture Notes - Triple Metre, Rondo, Minuet

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Published on 13 Apr 2013
School
McMaster University
Department
Music
Course
MUSIC 1AA3
Page:
of 2
String Quartet
Haydn was not first composer of string quartet (Purcell and Allegri in 17th century)
Haydn wrote more than anyone else, established genre
most demanding genre
intimate - performers operate on equal footing
typically 4 movements
1st - fast, "sonata" form (ch. 23, Mozart, sym. no. 40)
2nd = slow, contrasting key, either variation form or ABA
3rd - "minuet", lively, dance form, triple metre (ch. 22, Haydn. Sym. no. 102)
4th - "Finale", fast, light mood, "sonata" form or "rondo" (ABACA)
timbre: blended, matching timbre - variants of same basic instrument
instrument ranges are similar to voice:
Soprano: Violin 1 - sweet, piercing
Alto: Violin 2
Tenor: Viola - mellow, rounded
Bass: Cello - resonant, rich
layout is 1st violin, 2nd violin, viola and cello from right to left, in semicircle
Joseph Haydn (1732-1809)
music director for Prince Nicholas Esterhazy for almost 3 decades
composed music for the prince
conductomg: in charge of one of the best orchestras in europe
keep order amongst musicians
after death of the prince (in 1790) , haydn made 2 long trips to England (1791 and 1794)
composed symphonies, songs, and piano works
returned to Vienna in 1795: produced oratorios, Masses, string quartets, and taught Beethoven
String Quartet in C Major, 2nd Movement
3 fundamental processes of composing:
repetition, variation, contrast
Haydn's Quartet in C Major (1797), 2nd Movement does all 3:
Based on repeating melody, "God save Franz, the Emperor" (now Germany's national anthem)
set of variations - problem: tune associated with "unchanging" Emperor, so how to vary it
Solution: melody stays the same, surrounded by contrasting musical lines
haydn melody uses "periodic" phrase structure!
consists of antecedent phrases followed by consequent phrases
ante = Latin of before; Sequent = Lating of following
like a sentence: If i'm still here tomorrow (antecedent phrase 1), and if you're back
(antecedent phrase 2), I'll stop by your place. (consequent phrase)
AABCC is structure for the main melody (A's and B are antecedent, C's are consequent)
Haydn changes the music with each variation
theme - melody in Vln. 1, hymn-like, homophonic
Var. 1 - melody in Vln. 2, Vln. 1 has elaborate acc., 2-part homophonic
Var. 2 - melody in Cello, other 3 voices have own melodies, polyphonic
Var. 3 - melody in Viola, polyphonic
Var. 4 - melody back in Vln. 1, but all voices have own melodies, polyphonic
Work closes with short passage called a coda!(italian for tail)
Theme & Variation form
very popular throughout Classical Era and into 19th century
Simple structure - theme presented then altered:
harmony, melody (embellished), texture, dynamics, instrumentation
composers often used well-known themes:
mozart "twinkle, twinkle:
beethoven: "god save the queen

Document Summary

2nd = slow, contrasting key, either variation form or aba. 3rd - minuet, lively, dance form, triple metre (ch. 4th - finale, fast, light mood, sonata form or rondo (abaca) Haydn was not rst composer of string quartet (purcell and allegri in 17th century) Solution: melody stays the same, surrounded by contrasting musical lines. 3 fundamental processes of composing: repetition, variation, contrast. Haydn"s quartet in c major (1797), 2nd movement does all 3: Aabcc is structure for the main melody (a"s and b are antecedent, c"s are consequent) Haydn changes the music with each variation: work closes with short passage called a coda (italian for tail) very popular throughout classical era and into 19th century. Simple structure - theme presented then altered: composers often used well-known themes: theme - melody in vln. 2 - melody in cello, other 3 voices have own melodies, polyphonic.