MUSIC 2MU3 Lecture Notes - Music Therapy, Core Data, Hypokinesia

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Published on 19 Apr 2013
McMaster University
Course outline:
Assignment 1: june 28th: 15 percent
Midterm july 5th: 35 percent
2nd assignment july 12th: 15 percent
Exam july 26th: 35 percent
Contact info:
Assignment 1:
Desifer " what is the research question"
Is it how mt affects ones ability to walk or dance, or ability to communicate, is it mood enhancement, is it measuring certain breathign raes etc. So what is the reserch question
at hand
What is it the researcher is trying t discover, what is the research question?
All different ways in which one can evaluate is in the books that she gave us!
In regards to this particular reseach, what kind of assessments was used to get data and how was it evaluated it.. Through comparisions,through lit review, was their different
comparable groups for examples
How is the assessment and evaluation completed? Qual/quant, realiable/valid, type of data collected, interventions used.
How long is it? As long as you want just answer the question.
What was the outcome? i.e. Is " is active mt affective in ones range of motion in regards to / dexstarity int heir hand, what was the iutcome?" did it increase it or do short term
affects, or it made them incredibly aggressive etc. What was the outcme
Assignment #2:
Find an article yourself
And in recent article/review. Research about music therapy ( voices<<< has all current articles on mt /WFMT<<< can find artic les, book reviews and research
there/Journals<<< there's different journals, Canadian ones and British and Australian ones etc.)
i.e. This research is about autism i.e. They were looking at 5 boys and 5 girls in speech production, this is what they used and this is what the outcome is.
Print the original article
Provide reference and a brief summary in your own words
Write about something you are interested in
What was the research question?
How was the research implemented?
Was it only lyric writing and song writing?
Or only improvization
Was it playing instruments, and rhythmic based activities
Was it a combination of different interventions
What music therapy interventions were implemented?
Is it behavioural based?
Is it client-centered?
Does it mention that mtharpist is nordith robbins change
Is it psychoanalytical based
What mt model/approach was implemented?
The results
What were the outcomes of the research?
This will greately inform the outcome i.e. If research was by mt in england and the focus and angle on research will be different of mt in the u.s. b/c in the states the research is
predominantly behavioural based
So it could be written by another health care professional or another type of researcher who was collecting te data and putting the research togetehr even though a mt
did it<<< be acknowledgable of that to see hwo it influences the outcome of the research
b/c some research is aimed to not bias but we end up having some bias <<< so if we read it in a mindful way of who is collecting the research then we know
Or some mt research was written and made by someone that is not a mt
Where in the world did the research take place, and by who?
Choose a research that you can answer all the questions with<<< look over it and ensure you can answer all the questions! Mak e sure it has all the questions, choose tha rticle that
shows everything!
If it doesn't tell you the model or approach in exac sentenc e, then often you can read it and infer that it was behavioruall y based b/c mt was instructing the client as to what they
should be doing or you can infer that it was client centered b/c thereapist is taking the lead of the client! So you should b e able to read it and have a sense of what the apporach or
model was<< you should be able to pull that model out even though it doesn't actually say it ! Sso if it doesn't say it then its okay! Rullax! Lol
Google Tony Wigrams name
There are a few mt research journals
International latin-american journal of MT
CDN journal of mt
Nordic hournal of MT
Australian journal of mt
British Journal of MT
International journal of Arts and Medicine **<< not specifically a mt journal, but it does contain research that is relivant to mt
Journal of Music and meaning **<<< not mt specific but it does have articles that are relevant
Non mt journals (nursing/psych/neuro/educ)<<, you can also find mt specific articles in journals that are not mt specific!
PhD programs in MT
T have research we need post graduate universities
There is a mt training program that in Canada one needs to have a min. Of BA in mt and in Canada there is currently 2 master programs but around the worl their are phd programs
which are producing mt programs.
Lesley U
Drexel U
Temple U
New York U
U of Kanss etc.
MT research Table 5.1:
98 research
210 clinical papers
191 general papers
Just to have a look at what kind of research was produced in this amount of time and found:
Majority of research was on Mostly special education, general medicine
Leslie Bunt at the forefront last 2 decades in British Music Therapy research ( qual and quan)
Lacking: found in these research was that there was not a lot of research in mt in psychiatry, geriatrics ( starting to have more research on this bc there has been more funding
1987-1991 ( and looked at 5 main mt journals)
1st class
11:02 PM
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in regards to mt, so there has been more access to funding to that now than before), physical disabilities
MT research Table 5.2:
Recognize the different kind of research in mt journals to date, sow hat kind of data do we have up to this point? At least t ill 2001, and here hasn't been any collaboration or
integration up till then of this type
3 journals 1998-2001- types of research
JMT leans toward Quantitative research (34%)
BSMT- clinical practise (8.3+ 4.1 + 8.3%)
NJMT leans toward theory (46.9%)
The journals now of mt tend to lead towards more quantitative research i.e. Ppl sharing their experiences, verbal feedback an d visual observations
Theory examples: function of communication in music, aesthetic aspects, theory building, processes, origins of music behaviou r.
i.e. Case study
Sow e have a question in line prior to going into the research
Formulating research questions
Taking a broad view and focus
Studying and interpreting human behaviour
Looking at human behaviour in regards to affecting ones mood, does it alleviate stress, and how des it impact perception of pain
Some ppl had cognitive impairments
Exploring the process: in regards to engaging mt , how did this process of developing therapeutic relationship help process i.e. Person had depression and sever
back apin and mt increased her perception of pain quantitaively but qualitatively, she was allowing herself to feel again and reflect on herself and was getting out of
this num stage as a way to manage!
One can see how qualitative work can really lend itself to mt
Qu. How can mt affect ones perception of pain
Example of a qualitative mt component was teachers research in regards to pain perception
Typically explores process
Is gathering numerical data and comparing it
i.e. Going back to the example at the hospital with pain perception, the hypothesis was that " mt will decrease ones perception of pain"
Hyptheses is in place
i.e. Oen way was gathering data on scale to support things, measurable data i.e. Pain perception had a scale with pre and post pain perception
Manipulating independent variables
Collecting measurable data
In her pain perception research, they didn't have a control group<<< so if that study was to be replicated and taken further , then that would be one thing to add
Comparisons ( treatment groups vs. control [grp of indviiduals who are not having the mt])
Is when one feels the impact of the intervention even though the intervention never took place
This is how we analyze the data that was collected to see if it gives us any useful information, and if its relevant and if it gives us any useful information
So you want to now the outcome and t see if the findings were significant
Statistical analysis
Qual and Quan:
Important of BOTH methods in understanding/furthering MT
Mt research is hard to find but in order to understand the impact of intervention like mt its best to have a qualitative and quantitative data to give the full picture
By having the qualitative and quantitative together will give us a better picture b/c sometimes the participant wants to plea se researcher but to know how much they were trying to
do that and to control for that you also have qualitative research i.e. Observe what they do and say i.e.2. in her research t he participants moved areas of their body where they had
pain, so that helps to give further evidence that the person really has been motivated to engage and that the mt allows them to override that pain
In mt we look at whole person, the physiological and neurological and psychological aspects as well
What is research?
i.e. If you research how many pairs of shoes rachel has and you say over the last 12 classes you see her having 3 pairs and then you write a research paper on professors shoes
and b/c you didn't do research properly then all the information is a waste of time, so if you get all the information then you can bring something new to this and you have to
make sure that its new or reforming something !
As a research you need to know if your providing more evidence that we are already sure abotu or if you are providing new information to the field
Careful or diligent search. To investigate exhaustively << it must be exhaustive, b/c if you just research something a little bit then you only really know a little bit, and you can't find
out new information based on just a little bit
Embark upon again and again
Either finding new knowledge
Substantiating knowledge we already had
So just bc there has been research there doesn't mean we don't do it again, b/c many times ppl find new evidence and sometimes might need to replicate
Research doesn't need to be complicated, ti can be very simple in what it is in what your investigating exhaustively!
Or objecting
A carefully organized procedure that can result in the discovery of new knowledge, the substantiation of previously held conc epts, the rejection of false claims that have been widely
acclaimed, and the formal presentation of data collected (Phelps et al 1993)
Process of Research:
Generally when one does research there is a process
There should be a clear statement of purpose of what is to be investigated
Clearly described/ justified methodology
Report of the results
Conclusion that are subsequently related to existing knowledge
4 steps
Reliability and validity
Uniform approach unlikely
Criteria can be standardized
Within the paper as well there should be an assessment of the research i.e. Is reliable or valid about the approach
Data Collection p. 248:
Can be video recording sessions
Having someone else dictate and write up the session
Another example: individuals who have challenges with change, have stimming behaviours, those on the autism spectrum and easily get caught into patters,
may choose one note i.e. On zylaphone and repeate on that same note , they preseverate ( continue to play same onote over and over despite whats going
around them musically) << there seems to be some connections with individuals with skits, late stage dementia and autism
Were not talking abotu their musisionship and their ability to be able to play a song
Looking at patters i.e. Individuals with severe depression don't use full sepctrum of piano, and use little dynamics and often quiet repetitive and non creative
<<< that's an example of music data and looking for similarities
Can collect this data in different ways
Musical data
Is the idnividual listneing to the music and responding to music int he way normal ppl would
Musical behavioural data-behaviour within themusic
Are they looking at therapist? Are they making eye contact? Are they laughing
i.e. Joel, the young boy with autism had assesments and from other health care individuals they saw that they weren't able to initate or share information but in mt there
was behavioru of laughing and sharing emotional experiences
Behavioural data: general behaviour in sessions
What data can we collect?
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was behavioru of laughing and sharing emotional experiences
How is client engaging with music as well as the therapist i.e. Things verbally ebing said or eye contact etc.
Interpretive date- of musical and general behaviour
Cmparing whats going on in mt compared to the class room or compared to at home or in speech therapy or other enviroenemtns and comparing that
i.e. Within mt there is no aggressive behaviours, there is social turn taking and emotional expression but at school there isheightened anxiety and there is more
aggressive behaviour and little shared social interactions
Comparative data- within/outside of mt. Collaborating with others
Not mt specific, its a topic that expands many professions and academics so those involved with anthropology, neurology, cognition, education, musicology as well as
music therapists are all looking at " how do we actually analyze music? And how does it affect us"
When we tlak about the above things, they are mt interventions, but in this section, we look and use other things i.e. How much is nature and how much is nurture in
regards to how we interact with music, and see how music affects us in regaurds to rehab, motivation skills etc.
i.e. Through data collected, different frequncies allited from chair give individuals moments of lusidity here in the moment and having capacity to verally use
muslces and joints to quordinate muslces and ideas<<< its data that is showing that there is some connections between sound waves ( music) and how we
physiologically interact with the world<<< so that is contributing through this analysis and understanding that frequencies tend to have certian resutls, so by
analyzing music and recognizing patters we can start to infer that in specific situations one might use certain combinations and octives and requencies to attain
certian results
So this is a topic that is quiet hot in general and isn't specific to music therapy
There is a need for analysis of music
Musical data:
Pitch.freuqnecy ( measured in Hz)
Loudness ( measured in db)
Thsi can be used in mt or in other reasearch designes
Wave formtimber.harmonic spectrum ( spectrum analysis of voice/ acoustic/electronic instruments/sounds/.. Can all be measured )
i.e. How long did the individual improvize for
i.e.2. part of joels assessment was to see how long did he musically engage in improvization
Duration ( hours/minutes/seconds and smaller)
Style ( classcal, jazz, rock)
Tempo ( BpM, or categories of speed. Allehro etc)
Rating stimulus quality ( simulative, neutral, seductive)
i.e. In mt one could videotape the sessions and then count i.e. How many times does the client initiate musical engagement or how many times does the client switch from
instrument to instrument, or how often do they repeat the same frames of music in each improvization
Frequency of selected musical events ( musical interaction types/change of texture...)
Example: Cohen (1992), effect of singing instruction on the speech production of 8 adults with neurological impairments and expressive speech disorders
The question here was " will the singing lessons affect their speech
Speaking fundamental frequency
Fundamental frequency variability
Vocal intensity
Rate of speech Verbal intelligibility
They tested under 5 dependent measures:
9 group sessions of singing instruction
Computer programs available for processing data
Frequency in Hz, variability in semi-tones, intensity in dB, rate of speech in pause time,
Computer programs can pull out data for you. It can collect information around pitch, rhythms, intination, etc.
6 independent judges rated intelligibility
Audio recorded pre and post test samples analyzed by special computer programs measuring;
They recorded individuals before and after
Assessment tools:
Burscia's improvisation
Loewy's Psychotherapeautic
Hintz Geriatric
Russia is a well known therapist who has had an improvizational assessment tool and different assesment tools of diagnostic purposes
We will be going through these tools more further on in the class
For Diagnostic purpose
Qual. Dr.Lee improv Analysis
Drlee funs this program and came before when we talked abotu asthetic mt <<, giving the client an amazing musical experience, the music therapist will support the client in a way
that the music is musically asthetically pleasing
He has created a very labour intensive useful tool in analyzing improvizations that take place in a mt setting, as a way of c ollecting data nad researching work that goes on in regards
to improvization
Need someone who is cognitively able to go through this process
9 stages
Listening- elemtns/properties.structures most significant
Response of mt to music
Client listenis;s and identifies what is significant
Other professionals listens and identify what is significant and describing the improv
This is a huge labour intensive process, but brings very interesting data from that
5-9: detailed transcritiption of music, notating/analysing structure
The purpose here is in recognizing that when we listen to imporvization that what we hear as the therapist and what we hear a s a client is not always the same<<< even if we did mt
for a long time and
Improve assessment profiles:
Bruscia, 1980's
Analyse music using psychological and musical constructs |( variability, autonomy, integration, conguence and tension)
Elements of music; rhythm, melody, harmony, and scales
Loewy's pscyhotherapeutic assess:
Assemessnet is based on music psychothereapy
Words represent clinical wrk
Its different than dr.less approach and analyzing it and dictating it and its detail where he we look at the words and then talking to the client ie..e " what cmae into yorumidn
when you did this, how are you feeling"<< using these words to analyze the improvization, instead of using the music itself, its through inquiray where the researcher is gaining
information about the music therapy and the client
13 areas of inuiry
Hintz Geriatric ASSESS:
Thorughout music therapy expression, areas are scored
Are they able to play expressively
Hwo they relate to music and doing so in an appropriate way
Behavioral/psychosocial skills
Motor skills
Cognitive/memory skills
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Document Summary

Is it how mt affects ones ability to walk or dance, or ability to communicate, is it mood enhancement, is it measuring certain breathign raes etc. So what is the reserch question at hand. Qual/quant, realiable/valid, type of data collected, interventions used. In regards to this particular reseach, what kind of assessments was used to get data and how was it evaluated it Through comparisions,through lit review, was their different comparable groups for examples. All different ways in which one can evaluate is in the books that she gave us! As long as you want just answer the question. Research about music therapy ( voices<<< has all current articles on mt /wfmt<<< can find artic les, book reviews and research there/journals<<< there"s different journals, canadian ones and british and australian ones etc. ) Provide reference and a brief summary in your own words i. e. this research is about autism i. e. Was it playing instruments, and rhythmic based activities.

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