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Lecture 3

NURSING 2LA2 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Bronchoconstriction, Asthma, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor


Department
Nursing
Course Code
NURSING 2LA2
Professor
Ruth Hannon
Lecture
3

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Module 3: Inflammation and Immunity
Inflammation and Immunity
When you encounter a condition ending with a suffix “itis,” you will know that inflammation is
at the heart of this disease process.
At the end of this module:
Define inflammation
List the goals of inflammation
Identify common causes of inflammation
Review the roles of cells of inflammation
Discuss the vascular and cellular changes of the inflammatory response
Discuss the role of inflammatory mediators
Differentiate between acute and chronic inflammation
List and describe the five cardinal signs of inflammation
Briefly discuss the role of inflammation in atherosclerosis
Let’s now look at some of the types of inflammation.
Human Defense Mechanisms
Specific (aka the Immune Response)
Non-specific (aka the Inflammatory Response)
Inflammation can be innate, meaning naturel or present at birth, or acquired, evolving over time
after birth. We’re all born with the same innate abilities to protect ourselves. But each one of us
will vary in our ability to acquire immunity, based on our individual experiences with exposure
to pathogens and foreign antigens over our lifetime. We will all develop our own unique immune
systems tailored just for us. There are 3 types of dense mechanisms.
Natural Barriers (First line of defense)
oInclude the epithelial layer of the skin and mucous membranes lining the
gastrointestinal, genitourinary and respiratory tract
oCalled naturel, physical barriers
oPhysical barriers can include mechanical and chemical types
oMechanical means of ridding the body of pathogens and includes sloughing ,
sneezing, coughing, vomiting, urinating, and ciliary action of the respiratory tract
oMost skin temperatures discourage the growth of bacteria
oChemical barriers include mucous, perspAiration, saliva, tears and earwax that
trap and kill microorganisms
oSome of these barriers contain enzymes, fatty and lactic acids, and antimicrobial
proteins that destroy bacteria
oOur own normal bacteria flora are capable of producing chemicals to keep
pathogens at bay
Inflammation (Second line of defense)
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Immunity (Third line of defense)
oAcquired, specific and adaptive ability
oOver time, our immune system develops specific antibodies designed to target
certain antigens and this defense mechanism has memory
oThis means that on first exposure to an antigen, our immune system makes
antibodies targeted toward that antigen
oThen, upon subsequent exposure to that same antigen, those antibodies that match
the antigen will be called to action to fight of new infection
In your readings, you will also come across terms like “humoral” and “cellular” in reference to
inflammation and immunity. These terms simply tell us where the inflammatory response
originates.
Humoral
oImplies that the response comes from the blood or plasma components
oHumoral response in inflammation involves complement factors
oIn immunity, it involves in the formation and action of antibodies
Cellular
oRefers to a cell-derived process
oIn inflammation, the involved cells are neutrophils and macrophages
oIn the immune response, we’re talking about lymphocytes
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Inflammation
Here are two definitions
of inflammation:
A protective response designed to eliminate the initial cause of injury, remove damaged
tissue and generate new tissue (Porth, pg. 363)
The biochemical and cellular response of vascularized tissue to injury; designed to
protect the body from further injury (McCance, pg. 186)
It’s important to emphasize the vascularized feature of inflammation to indicate that
inflammation occurs in tissues and other organs that are vascularized or perfused with blood.
Goals of Inflammation
Move required components to the site of injury
oMovement of all the necessary blood and cellular components to the site of injury
or insult
Deliver nutrients to the site of injury
oDelivery of nutrients and blood cells to eradicate the offender
Dilute, confine and/or eliminate injurious agents
oDilution, confinement and elimination of the offending agents
Stimulate and assist the immune system
oStimulation and facilitation of components of the immune system
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