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McMaster University
Barry Allen

DAVID HUME 171176Enquiry Concerning Human UnderstandingMetaphysics A science of being qua being ultimate realityHumes Moral Philosophy the science of human nature Impressions Immediate content of sensory experience Ideas Copies memories traces of impressionsThe whole difference between impressions and ideas is their vivacity their livelinessHumes critical rule Whenever we have an idea we are unsure that we understand correctly trace it back to the sensory impressions it copies and derives fromAssociation of Ideas Three principles1 Resemblance 2 Contiguity in space 3 Cause and effect contiguity in time Hume Enquiry Concerning Human Nature Section 4All beliefs concern eitherRelations of ideas Implications of definitions Contrary is contradictory and logically impossible Known with certaintyMatters of fact and existence Draw a connection between logically different ideas The contrary is always logically possible even if actually false Never known with certainty A1 is B A2 is B So A is BAll iron examined under many conditions is a conductor So iron all of it is a conductorMissing assumptionSimilar effects have similar causes Similar causes produce similar effects The future resembles the pastSummary of Humes argument in Sections 45Q What justifies beliefs about matters of fact A Beliefs about cause and effect Q What justifies beliefs about cause and effectFirst Negative Point Not a relation of ideasWhy The opposite is not a contradiction and is logically possibleSecond Negative Point Not a matter of factWhy Because knowledge of fact depends on cause and effect and cannot justify itFirst Conclusion We have no knowledge of causal powers in natureSecond Conclusion We have no knowledge of fact or existenceThird Conclusion Beliefs about causation and existence are an instinctive response of human nature to perception and are not reasoned or rationally justifiedHume Enquiry Section 8 Liberty and Necessity Compatibilism The compatibility of free will and determinism Section 10 MiraclesSources of evidence for religious belief1 Deductive proofs of God 2 Empirical evidence of intelligent design in nature 3 Historical reports of miraclesWhat makes testimony reliable
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