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Spinoza

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Department
Philosophy
Course
PHILOS 1A03
Professor
Barry Allen
Semester
Winter

Description
HERACLITUS c. 535-475 BCE Arche is logos Logos: 1. Language, speech 2. Definition, explanation, reason, measure 3. Systematic knowledge Psuche, soul. The life-force of anything alive; what gives living things their appearance of life. Pythagoras, c. 570-495 BCE Heraclitus of Ephesus (Ancient Greek: Ἡπάκλειηορ ὁ ἖θέζιορ—Hērákleitos ho Ephésios; c. 535 – c. 475 BCE) was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher, a native of the Greek city Ephesus, Ionia, on the coast of Asia Minor. He was of distinguished parentage. Little is known about his early life and education, but he regarded himself as self-taught and a pioneer of wisdom. From the lonely life he led, and still more from the riddling nature of his philosophy and his contempt for humankind in general, he was called "The Obscure" and the "Weeping Philosopher". Heraclitus is famous for his insistence on ever-present change in the universe, as stated in the famous saying, "No man ever steps in the same river twice" [1(see panta rhei, below). He believed in the unity of opposites, stating that "the path up and down are one and the same", all existing entities being characterized by pairs of contrary properties. His cryptic utterance that "all entities come to be in accordance with this Logos" (literally, "word", "reason", or "account") has been the subject of numerous interpretations. Contents  1 Life  2 Works  3 Ancient characterizations o 3.1 The obscure o 3.2 The weeping philosopher  4 Philosophy o 4.1 Logos o 4.2 Panta rhei, "everything flows" o 4.3 Hodos ano kato, "the way up and the way down" o 4.4 Dike eris, "strife is justice" o 4.5 Hepesthai to koino, "follow the common"  5 Influence o 5.1 Plato o 5.2 Stoics o 5.3 Church fathers  6 See also  7 Notes  8 Further reading  9 External links Life The main source for the life of Heraclitus is Diogenes Laërtius, although some have questioned the validity of his account as "a tissue of Hellenistic anecdotes, most of them obviously fabricated on the basis of statements in the preserved fragments." [2]Diogenes said that Heraclitus flourished in the 69th Olympiad, [3]504-501 BCE. All the rest of the evidence – the people Heraclitus is said to have known, or the people who were familiar with his work – confirms the floruit. His dates of bi[4] and death are based on a life span of 60 years, the age at which Diogenes says he died, with the floruit in the middle. Ephesus on the coast of Asia Minor, birthplace of Heraclitus Heraclitus was born to an aristocratic family in Ephesus, Anatolia, in what is now called present- day Efes, Turkey. His father was named either Blosôn or Herakôn. [3]Diogenes says that he abdicated the kingship (basileia) in favor of his brother [5]and Strabo confirms that there was a ruling family in Ephesus descended from the Ionian founder, Androclus, which stil[6]ept the title and could sit in the chief seat at the games, as well as a few other privileges. How much power the king had is another question. Ephesus had been part of the Persian Empire since 547 and was ruled by a satrap, a more distant figure, as the Great King allowed the Ionians considerable autonomy. Diogenes says that Heraclitus used to play knucklebones with the youths in the temple of Artemis and when asked to start making laws he refused saying that the constitution (politeia) was ponêra, [7which can mean either that it was fundamentally wrong or that he considered it toilsome. With regard to education, Diogenes says that Heraclitus was "wondrous" (thaumasios, which, as Plato explains in the Theaetetus and elsewhere, is the beginning of philosophy) from childhood. Diogenes relates that Sotion said he was a "hearer" of Xenophanes, which contradicts Heraclitus' statement (so says Diogenes) that he had taught himself by questioning himself. Burnet states in any case that "... Xenophanes left Ionia before Herakleitos was born." [8]Diogenes relates that as [9] a boy Heraclitus had said he "knew nothing" but later claimed to "know everything." His statement that he "heard no one" but "questioned himself," can be placed alongside h[10]tatement that "the things that can be seen, heard and learned are what I prize the most." Diogenes relates that Heraclitus had a poor opinion of human affairs. [3]He believed that Hesiod [11] and Pythagoras lacked un[12]tanding though learned and that Homer and Archilochus [13] deserved to be beaten. Laws needed to be defended as though they were city walls. Timon is said to have called him a "mob-reviler." Heraclitus hated the Athenians and his fellow Ephesians, wishing the latter wealth in punishment for their wicked ways. [14]Says Diogenes: "Finally, he became a hater of his kind (misanthrope) and wandered the mountains ... making his diet of grass and herbs." Heraclitus' life as a philosopher was interrupted by dropsy. The physicians he consulted were unable to prescribe a cure. He treated himself with a liniment of cow manure and baking in the sun, believing that this metho[15]uld remove the fluid. After a day of treatment he died and was interred in the marketplace. Works Main article: On Nature (Heraclitus) Diogenes states that Heraclitus' work was "a continuous treatise On Nature, but was divided into three discourses, one on the universe, another on politics, and a third on theology." Theophrastus says (in Diogenes) "...some parts of his work are half-finished, while other parts make a strange [5] medley." Diogenes also tells us that Heraclitus deposited his book as a dedication in the great temple of Artemis, the Artemisium, one of the largest temples of the 6th century BCE and one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. Ancient temples were regularly used for storing treasures, and were open to private individuals under exceptional circumstan[2]; furthermore, many subsequent philosophers in this period refer to the work. Says Kahn: "Down to the time of Plutarch and Clement, if not later, the little book of Heraclitus was available in its original form to any reader who chose to seek it out." Diogenes says: [5]"the book acquired such fame that it produced partisans of his philosophy who were called Heracliteans." As with other pre-Socratics, his writings survive only in fragments quoted by other authors. Heraclitus (figured by Michelangelo) sits apart from the other philosophers in Raphael's School of Athens Ancient characterizations The obscure At some time in antiquity he acquired this epithet denoting that his major sayings were difficult to understand. Timon of Phlius calls him "the riddler" (ainiktēs) according to Diogenes Laërtius,[5]who had just explained that Heraclitus wrote his book "rather unclearly" (asaphesteron) so that only the "capable" should attempt it. By the time of Cicero he had become [16] "the dark" (Ancient Greek ὁ Σκοηεινόρ — ho Skoteinós) because he had spoken nimis obscurē, "too obscurely", concerning nature and had done so deliberately in order to be misunderstood. The customary English translation of ὁ Σκοηεινόρ follows the Latin, "the obscure." The weeping philosopher Diogenes Laërtius ascribes to Theophrastus the theory that Heraclitus did not complete some of his works because of melancholia. [5]Later he was referred to as the "weeping philosopher," as opposed to Democritus, who is known as the "laughing philosopher." [17If Stobaeus [18]writes correctly, Sotion in the early 1st century CE was already combining the two in the imaginative duo of weeping and laughing philosophers: "Among the wise, instead of anger, Heraclitus was [19] overtaken by tears, Democritus by laughter." The view is expressed by the satirist Juvenal: The first of prayers, best known at all the temples, is mostly for riches... Seeing this then do you not commend the one sage Democritus for laughing... and the master of the other school Heraclitus for his tears? The motif was also adopted by Lucian of Samosata in his "Sale of Creeds," in which the duo is sold together as a complementary product in the satirical auction of philosophers. Subsequently they were considered an indispensable feature of philosophic landscapes. Montaigne proposed [20] two archetypical views of human affairs based on them, selecting Democritus' for himself. The weeping philosopher makes an appearance in William Shakespeare's The Merchant of Venice. [21]Donato Bramante painted a fresco, "Democritus and Heraclitus," in Casa Panigarola [22] in Milan. Philosophy Logos Main article: Logos "The idea that all things come to pass in accordance with this Logos" [23]and "the Logos is common," [24]is expressed in two famous but obscure fragments: This Logos holds always but humans always prove unable to understand it, both before hearing it and when they have first heard it. For though all things come to be in accordance with this Logos, humans are like the inexperienced when they experience such words and deeds as I set out, distinguishing each in accordance with its nature and saying how it is. But other people fail to notice what they do when awake, just as they forget what they do while asleep. (DK 22B1) For this reason it is necessary to follow what is common. But although the Logos is common, most people live as if they had their own private understanding. (DK 22B2) The meaning of Logos also is subject to interpretation: "word", "account", "plan", "formula", "measure", "proportion", "reckoning." [25]Though Heraclitus "quite deliberately plays on the various meanings of logos", [26]there is no compelling reason to suppose that he used it in a speci[27]echnical sense, significantly different from the way it was used in ordinary Greek of his time. The later Stoics understood it as "the account which governs everything," [28]and Hippolytus, in the 3rd century AD, identified it as meaning the Christian Word of God. [29] Panta rhei, "everything flows" Πάνηα ῥεῖ (panta rhei) "everything flows" either was not spoken by Heraclitus or did not survive as a quotati[30]f his. This famous aphorism used to characterize Heraclitus' thought comes from Simplicius, a neoplatonist, and from Plato's Cratylus. The word rhei (cf. rheology) is the Greek word for "to stream, and to the etymology of Rhea according to Plato's Cratylus." [31] Heraclitus by Hendrick ter Brugghen [32] The philosophy of Heraclitus is summed up in his cryptic utterance: ποηαμοῖζι ηοῖζιν αὐηοῖζιν ἐμϐαίνοςζιν, ἕηεπα καὶ ἕηεπα ὕδαηα ἐπιππεῖ. Potamoisi toisin autoisin embainousin, hetera kai hetera hudata epirrei "Ever-newer waters flow on those who step into the same rivers ." The quote from Heraclitus appears in Plato's Cratylus twice; in 401,d as: [33] ηὰ ὄνηα ἰέναι ηε πάνηα καὶ
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