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PHILOS 1B03 (370)
Wil Waluchow (161)

Jan 9 ,2014

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Wil Waluchow

Philosophy 1B03 Thursday January 9th, 2014 Lead Slide Text Summary or Rewording. Summary of Main Themes Philosophy: ★ Philosophy brings up from Last Class 1. Addresses foundational BIG but basic questions, ones whose questions - general answers inform our basic questions about how understanding of: things work, - Most other areas of human foundations that inquiry, and people have accepted - Fundamental aspects of the as “the normal” world, ourselves, and our without really relation to the world thinking about them, general ideas about Tends towards the abstract - the world and how doesn’t ask for the time; asks humans relate to the “What is time?” world. ★ It usually surrounds 3. Attempts to answer its CONCEPTS of questions in a reasoned things. (These will manner usually be abstract concepts. - Not physical things. > i.e 4. Focuses on arguments “Democracy”, “Knowledge”, 5. Focuses on analysis of “Time”.) concepts - e.g. the concept of ★ Philosophers analyse democracy, the concept of these Concepts, we time, the concept of call this “Conceptual knowledge Analysis”. ★ Philosophy will 6. Has a number of traditional usually split into sub-fields including: parts. Common parts are Logic, Ethics, and - Logic Metaphysics. - Ethics - Metaphysics Metaphysics - Metaphysics seeks to ★ Are we all matter just determine what basic sorts of like everything else things are real - the (are we just a more fundamental categories of complex combination reality or existence of matter than a chair, but in the end only - It doesn’t ask: Is there a made out of the same chair in the next room? thing?), or do we have a soul, spirit, etc? ★ Lots of philosophers - Metaphysics addresses will take both sides questions like: ★ Some that think that we are all just - Does the world contain particles mental, physical and abstract ★ Some (e.g Descartes) things (like numbers?) will believe in - Or is the universe dualism and believe composed of nothing but the that thoughts aren’t physical - i.e. only matter and reducible to anything energy? physical, so there has - Are persons highly complex to be a soul, etc. physical systems? Or - Do they have properties - e.g., thoughts and feelings - that are not reducible to anything physical? - Do we have minds as well as bodies? Epistemology - Epistemology deals with ★ Epistemologists will the nature and scope of ask what it means to knowledge know something, (do - What does it mean to know you really know it, do a statement or proposition, p? you just think you - What is the nature of truth? know it?) - Are there sources of ★ What does it mean to knowledge beyond reason know that something and the evidence provided by is real knowledge/ the our senses? truth - Can our beliefs about the ★ Can we really have inner lives of other people knowledge? If so what ever be justified? is the source of it? Is - Indeed, can we really be it beyond anything we sure that other people exist, can think of? and if so, that they have ★ David Hume (scottish minds? philosopher) asked - We can never experience “How do we know the distant past and we have that the sun will rise yet to experience the future tomorrow?” and (distant or near) “How do we know - So how can we possibly that it rose in the know truths about the future distant past?” and the distant past? Scottish Philosopher David Hume: - How do we (the people in this room) know that the sun will rise tomorrow - as it has every other day in our own, personal experiences? - How do we know that the run, in fact, rose in the sky on January 6, 1663? (That the sun will rise tomorrow, or in the distant past?) The History of Philosophy - Studies both major ★ Bertrand Russel philosophers and entire Archives are in our periods in the development of library philosophy ★ History of Philosophy - Periods studies traditionally will focus on big include theAncient, philosophers Medieval, Early Modern, including Plato, Nineteenth Century, and Aristotle, St. Thomas Twentieth Century periods Aquinas, Immanuel - Major philosophers studied Kant, Friedrich include: Plato,Aristotle, St. Nietzsche, John Stuart Thomas Aquinas, Immanuel Mill, Bertrand Kant, Friedrich Nietzsche, Russell, and Ludwig John Stuart Mill, Bertrand Wittgenstein Russell, and Ludwig ★ It will also focus on Wittgenstein how the subject of - History of Philosophy seeks Philosophy developed to understand the theories and since a long time ago arguments of key ★ You can cut philosophers of the past, their Psychology’s influence on others, and their development into importance for contemporary parts (periods). philosophical issues ★ traditionally they’re - It also reveals many cut intoAncient, foundations of Western Medieval, Early civilization and thought Modern, Nineteenth Century, and Twentieth Century Periods Other Subfields of - Philosophy of Mind Philosophy - Political Philosophy - Philosophy of Law - Philosophy of History - Philosophy of Mathematics - Philosophy of Education - Philosophy of Feminism - Film - etc, etc. - Philosophy is wide ranging The Methods of Philosophy - There is probably no one ★ Monty Python sketch correct way to do philosophy
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