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McMaster University
Sean Corner

Instructors: Stefan Rodde &Adam Sopuck Date: 11/24/13 Class: Philosophy & the Sciences 1D03 Topic: The Structure of Scientific Revolutions— Kuhn Induction  A form of argument used to generalize or predict future events from particular examples: o P1. A1 has property p o P2. A2 has property p o P3. A3 has property p o C4. All A’s have property p Problem with Induction  P1 sun rose 2 days ago  P2 the sun rose yesterday  P3 the sun rose today *Kuhn: P4. The future resembles the past  C4 the sun will rise tomorrow *Kuhn: C5. The sun will rise tomorrow Circularity The future resembles the past Induction How can we respond to Hume’s criticism? 1. Skepticism towards science (Hume) 2. Rehabilitate induction (logical positivists) 3. Don’t ground science on induction (Popperfalsification) Popper  Science is based on falsifying hypothesis  Always testing hypothesis, science is better off then it was before because we know that something is not true, and f it is true we are getting closer to the answer Problem with Falsification  Falsification is a theory about scientific process o Does science progress the way Popper think it does? Copernican Revolution  Adoption of heliocentric theory, (developed in 1540), rather than the geocentric theory  Geocentric was complex but was not proven falseit worked  Worse: empirical data didn’t support heliocentric modeldata falsified model  On poppers account, can the CR be an example of scientific progress o No, not at the time not until we had the equipment to prove it  Seems like Poppers theory been falsified itself… 1 Thomas Kuhn (1922-1996)  Trained as a physicist, however the undergrad course, history of science, had more of an influence on him Chili Analog  Make a big pot of chili o 1st guy says its too hot (spicy) o 2 said no its not (temp)  Heat of chili is seen in two ways, temperature & spice  They have to agree to discuss on heat degree and temp, if they did agree on temp they would have to talk about the amount of spices before they disagree about temp
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