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Lecture 5

Philosophy and the Sciences-Feb. 2 Week 5

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Dr.Michal Arciszewski

February 2The Wandering Stars Why do stars wander What is the order behind the observed patterns What is out there What is the realityWhat makes a good hypothesisAre some betterHow do you evaluate a hypothesis o Its originsfoundationsInduced from observationsDeduced from first principlesaxioms o Its confirmationMany correlationstestsobservationsMathematically correctHow do you know youre right I Stage 1 observations Induction to generalisation All humans are mortalBy intuition rationalBy enumeration empirical II Stage 2Exploring Generalisations Deduction of consequencesForming conditionals new theoremslaws IIIStage 3ConfirmationsTestingStage 1 Forming Generalisations o Empirical FoundationInduction as a basis for good hypothesesempirical foundationsRoger Bacon o Development of Inductive scienceNot a focus on deduction testing or system buildingNot guided by understanding of final causes and purposes o Slow accumulation of facts and progressive development of scientific knowledgeIncrease in knowledge through accumulation of facts dataPyramid of Judgements o From facts to generalisationsAscend via method of exclusionfalsification stage 3 o From accidental correlations to essential lawsAccidental correlationgeneralisationTodayhereEssential relations lawsAlwaysGalileo Galilei
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