Overview: Thoreau, Rousseau, Marx & Engels, Lenin. – the shared emancipatory view.
- Human equality and freedom must be protected at all costs,
o Which may include disobeying the law or the government and punished
o A right and a duty to struggle for freedom and equality when they have
been taken from us
They are fundamental and essential, even though everywhere we
o But also, advocates of violent revolution.
o Capacity for greed, exploitation, which is equaled by our potential for
compassion and care.
o It is suffering that motivates us to struggle against injustice.
- Inequality and injustice is a direct result of one group of people having power
o Property ownership, capitalism, economic inequality main causes of
o Also, the bourgeoisie, private ownership (Engels & Marx).
o Socialization, perfectability, property ownership causes of inequality
- They all share a suspicion of political institution – of law, of government, of
o Negative view of the state – Thoreau
o State of nature is ultimate – Rousseau (if a government reigned fairly and
well, we wouldn’t need one)
o He state is only there to reinforce class inequalities – Marx and Engels
Blamed for corruption and exploitation, and the division between
the bourgeoisie and the proletariat.
- Authors all share a confrontational/antagonistic view of political action.
o (with the exception of Thorea