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Intro to Ethics, Sept.18

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V Igneski

September 18 Ethics and Egoism Egoism - Psychological egoism: always acting out of self-interest o Acting as if we take interest in others’ interests. - Ethical egoism: each person ought to pursue her self-interest exclusively. Was Hobbes actually a psychological egoist? - Some passages do support this.. o Many scholars argue  that he had a more sophisticated view, that he thought people had a limited benevolence,  that it is uncharitable to call him a psychological egoist,  and that it leads to problems for his entire view. - Hobbes and Human Nature: limited through morality is in our best interest, entering into the social contract of generalized morality is beneficial to us. o Man is equal in ability in vulnerability – the weakest has the strength to kill the strongest; “even the strongest must sleep”. o Our ends are wholly our self-preservation and enjoyment (survival and happiness) o Our nature displays limited altruism o We are either practical, rational beings or suicidal animals.  Practical and rational being; have identifiable ends and are able to reason about how to get those things. o State of Nature: no government, no authority  Man has a right to all things  Constant competition for resources, it is naturally assumed that resources are scarce.  Cooperation is seemingly impossible  No security, no trust, only fear. o Reasons for War:  Competition  Secure t
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