Kant: Respect for persons –
- Never treating persons as mere means but as ends in themselves
o Rationality: capacity to deliberate about and act upon valid reasons for action
o Autonomy: capacity to rise above desire and self-interest; to act upon the basis
o Persons will have a will and so have dignity and moral worth
o Respect freedom to act for reasons they judge themselves.
Scanlon: Respect for persons –
- Treat persons in accordance with principles that they could not reasonably reject
o Persons have a capacity to assess reasons and justifications
Appreciating the value of human beings is in the recognition of the
capacity of assessment of reasons and justifications
o Agreement respects moral importance as rational autonomous agents
Co-deliberation over principles to treat people accordingly; we are not to
impose principles on others if they might reasonably reject it.
o Mutual recognition and respect.
Aim of Morality:
- Most social contract theories seek to maximize individual’s interests
o Principles would be rational will or to choose
Often these directives go against what, instinctually, pursues our own
- Scanlon’s contractualism seeks to pursue personal interests in a way justifiable to
others who have their own interests to pursue.
o Aim to find principles that others, insofar as they to have this aim, could not
We are allowed to pursue our own interests, but only insofar as they are
justifiable and not reasonably rejected by others.
o Moral agents concerned to justify selves to others
If you cannot justify your actions to others, then there is no good basis to
justify the principle of our actions.
Proposes that we are motivated by self interest, but also by respecting
others in the form of being able to justify our actions to others to be a