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V Igneski

Philo 2YY3 Lecture Sept 25, 2012 Value: What is the Good?  What counts as valuable?  Some important distinctions: o The good vs the right o Intrinsic value vs instrumental value  Intrinsic value-Its good in itself, not because it leads to any good  Something has instrumental value if it leads to something else we value (i.e exercise helps me be active but then I gain another value which is make me happy at the end) o Subjective vs objective  Objective state of the world  Subjective is where we value it in our heads  An impact on us or our experiences o Agent-relative vs agent-neutral  Agent-relative to the person and agent  Something that is valuable through your perspective  Agent-neutral- gods eye view, value not dependent on a particular person but from this god’s eye view that things have value. o Monism vs pluralism  Monistic- pleasure is value, everything is value if only leads to pleasure  Pluralism believes that everything is intrinsic valuable, they will conflict with each other but need to figure out how to fix them.  Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832) o Normative theory a tool for social and legal reform  Pleasure is the only things that we value intrinsically o Principle of utility: an act is right “according to the tendency which it appears to have to argument or diminish the happiness of the party whose interest is in questions” (120)  Actions is right in so far it implements happiness and pleasure and then based on that find out if it causes pain or was wrong Bentham’s Hedonism  Pl
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