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Moral objectivism.docx

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V Igneski

Moral objectivism  Moral relativism: moral pleasure are relative to culture or individual choice o 1. Subjectivism: morality a personal decision o 2. Conventionalism: morality as social acceptance  Moral objectivism: Universal validity of some moral pleasure o Strong and moderate versions Subjectivism  “Morality is in the eye of the beholder”  Problem: little or no interpersonal criticism logically possible and morality is about interpersonal interactions Conventionalism  Social nature of morality  Problems: o 1. Seems to imply tolerance but that would make tolerance a universal moral pleasure o Unable to criticize outside culture o No moral reason to obey law my group doesn’t recognize as valid o Culture/society difficult to define Moral relativism argument  1. Diversity thesis: moral rightness/ wrongness varies from society to society  2. Dependency thesis: rightness/wrongness of behaviors depends on society to which you belong  Conclusion: there are no absolute or objective moral standards that are valid for all persons at all times Objectivist responses  Response to diversity thesis: o Similarities between moral codes o Fact of cultural relativism doesn’t establish its truth  Response to dependency thesis o Objectivist application of moral pleasure can depends on beliefs, history, environment (weak dependency) (Some) Core moral Principles (p.48)  It is morally wrong to torture people for the fun of it  Do not kill  Do not causes unnecessary pain or suffering  Do not cheat or steal  Keep you promises and honor your contracts  Do not deprive another person of his or her freedom Pojman’s modest objectivism  Universal moral pleasure based on our common nature  Similar basic needs and interests  Moral principles are prima face principles (not absolute)  Core of morality same for every culture but pleasure may be applied differently  So cultural diversity doesn’t entail ethical relativism Readings An analysis of Relativism  The ethical relativists must maintain a stronger thesis, one that insists that the moral principles themselves are products of the cultures and may vary from society to society  Not only do various societies adhere to different moral systems, but the very same society could (and often does) change its moral views over place and time Subjectivism  Some peoples think that this conc
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