Philosophy and the Sciences-Feb. 2 Week 5

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February 2
The Wandering Stars
Why do stars wander? What is the order behind the observed patterns? What is out there?
What is the reality?
What makes a good hypothesis?
- Are some better?
- How do you evaluate a hypothesis?
o Its origins/foundations?
Induced from observations
Deduced from first principles/axioms
o Its confirmation?
Many correlations/tests/observations
Mathematically correct?
- How do you know you’re right?
I. Stage 1 - observations
Induction to generalisation: All humans are mortal,
By intuition (rational)
By enumeration (empirical)
II. Stage 2 - Exploring Generalisations
Deduction of consequences
Forming conditionals (new theorems/laws)
III. Stage 3 - Confirmations
- Stage 1: Forming Generalisations:
o Empirical Foundation:
Induction as a basis for good hypotheses empirical foundations
Roger Bacon
o Development of Inductive science
Not a focus on deduction, testing or system building
Not guided by understanding of final causes and purposes
o Slow accumulation of facts and progressive development of scientific
Increase in knowledge through accumulation of facts/ data.
- Pyramid of Judgements
o From facts to generalisations
Ascend via method of exclusion falsification stage 3)
o From accidental correlations to essential laws
Accidental correlation/generalisation
Essential relations (laws)
Galileo Galilei
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