Overview: introduction to stoicism, stoic physics and theology, materialism, active and passive principles, god and mixture, the stoic cosmos, providence, fate and freedom. Stoicism was arguably the single most influential philosophical school of the hellenistic period: was main school of thought. The school is named after the stoa poikil , the painted porch or portico in the agora of. Athens, where the early stoics used to gather. The modern english word stoic derives from the ethical teachings of this school of philosophy: modern way of us saying stoic, used loosely, comes from the actual stoics. It is common and useful to divide the most important stoics into two main groups: the old stoics: e. g. zeno of cilium (344-266 bc), cleanthes (d. 232 bc), and. 206 bc: early stoics, the roman stoics: e. g. seneca (4 bc-65 ce), epictetus (55-135 ce), and the emperor. Marcus aurelius (121-180: the roman stoics are inferior.