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PHILOS 2YY3 Lecture Notes - Bombing Of Tokyo, Jus Ad Bellum, Just War Theory

Course Code
V Igneski

of 2
Just war Theory (Brian Orend)
Jus ad bellum: justice of resorting to war
Jus in bello: just in the conduct ofwar
Jus post bellum: justice at the end of war
Jus ad bellum
Just cause
o Could we intervene to promote value of democracy
o Do we have a just cause
Right intention
o To fight for the just cause
Declared by proper authority
Last resort
Reasonable chance of success
o Way the good of evil and ask if its worth it
o You have to consider the good and evil of everyone
Jus in Bello
Discrimination of legitimate targets
o Noncombatants
o Prisoners of war
Proportionalityminimum destruction and casualty
o Respect weapons prohibitions
Use any forces possible to end destruction
Responsibility for actions
o Holding people for there actions
Jus post bellum
Peace is the goal (not revenge)
Rights vindication
Punish leaders and soldiers for war crimes
Reasonable compensation
John Rawls’s principles governing conduct of wars of democratic peoples
Aim of a just war is just and lasting peace
Fought against nondemocratic aggressive regimes
Distinguish leaders/officials, soldiers and civilian population
Respect human rights of other side
Act like statesman
o Interest of the society
o Just peace
Means-end reasoning limited by 1-5
o Achieve peace
o Process of achieving and doing to achieve that means
o 1-5 limits the means of doing stuff
Means-end reasoning
Reasons for targeting civilians: hasten end of war, minimize casualties
o Tokyo firebombing: hundreds of thousands of civilian deaths. 76
Japanese cities
o Atomic bombing of Hiroshima: 80,000 directly killed; 90,000-160,000
died of injury or radiation
o Great evils and failure of leadership
Other things that could have been
Enter into negotiation with japan
Justifies to much
“Extreme crisis” exemption
At times aerial bombing of civilians is justified
o E.g., Britain at beginning of war
Could not allow Hitler to win
o Every justifiable to target civilians
o No because there were other alternatives