# PNB 3RM3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 43: Error Bar, Confidence Interval, Standard Deviation

## Document Summary

Error bars and significance error bars and significance: Error bars represent different calculations of variance and can only sometimes inform hypothesis testing. How to transform sd bars to include a representation of sample size = to convert it to standard error: which is sd divided by the square root of n". If two error bars overlap with one another, can be assured that those two means are not statistically significant from one another. Plotted mean of two groups with standard deviation, error and confidence interval. When means of sd are held constant, at around sample size of 7, your 95% confidence interval will become smaller than your sd bars replication: The only way to actually improve certainty in your hypothesis is to replicate your results. The only way we can make sure that the effects are real. World wide effort of trying to solve lack of replicability in science. This is a replication attempt of famous psychology effects.