Lecture 2F03 –
Thursday, Week2 July 4, 2013
Regionalism in the context of federalism
Multinationalism and different nations that comprise Canada
Diversity of Voices in Canadian Politics
Diversity of Voices:
The Tensions of Nationalisms
Multiculturalism – Unifying force, but it can be argued that it can be a
divisive force. Both those who are against it, and for it think its divisive.
o Federalism – Useful way of managing the tensions of regional divisions
o Regionalism - Has been around since the beginning, one of the reasons why we
have a federal system.
Historically until the 1990s – Nationalisms (English-Canada & French Canada)
o Aboriginal sovereignty was given more freedom later in the 1990s.
Nationalisms In Canada
English, French, Aboriginal & Multiculturalism
High levels – Tell us how power is distributed
A Political device that allows government at different levels to exercise sovereignty in
o Structures the allotment of power among government units
o Allows citizens to have closer contact with government
If had a unitary system, if we didn‟t have diff. levels of government.
Citizens wouldn‟t have these different levels of government that they can
have a connection with.
This way we have more opportunity to speak to elective representatives.
What are some essential elements?
o Division of powers
o Amendment procedure
o Courts (Judiciary)
Why do we have federalism in Canada?
o To solve the problem of government getting too big.
Decentralization VS centralization
More power sits with the federal government. There‟s an ongoing debate
about how centralized our government should be.
o Manage or moderate cleavages or diversity
Aaron Lipheart (C. democracy) o In order to check government power
Why does federalism work for Canada?
It has worked in some respects, and hasn‟t worked in some.
Large immigration population (60% of population comes from immigrant decendents)
Distinct economic regions
Two official languages
Division of power – how are powers divided in Canada?
Division of powers must be explicitly outlined
Sections 91, 92, and 93
Federal powers – defense, foreign affairs, trade & commerce, postal service
Provincial powers – health care, education, sale of alcohol, solemnization of marriage
Residual powers – Not specifically outlined in the constitution
o Any residual powers are granted to the federal gov‟t under section 91
Federal government hasn‟t always assumed responsibility for the
Types of Federalism
o The negotiation between executives of the federal and provincial level
o Applies to the money, transfer of funds from federal to provinces
Provinces have more powers in areas that cost more (health, education,
Fiscal – Distribution of Tax dollars
Provinces that have must pay in order to redistribute to the have not.
Two types of