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Lecture 6

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Political Science

1 Course: Poli Sci 2H03 Subject: Global Governance Instructor: Dr. Vermilyea Section: Evening, T01 Date: Oct.17, 2012 In this lecture we will:  Define global governance  Consider how global governance functions  Explore the different actors in global governance - states, corporate actors, civic associations  Examine the historical and current regime of international human rights Global governance - multiple definitions  Global governance: the overarching system which regulates human affairs on a worlwide basis  Mechanisms and rules of GG are created by the actions and agreements of key actors in the global system  Governance is characterized by decisions issued by one actor that a second actor is expected to obey  Governance is not government  Many argue that it pushes a specific Western agenda  Primary political actor is the state by other actors such as corporations and civic associations can also influence and participate in global governance  Trend in last 50 years - increasing role played by international (inter-state) organizations in facilitating governance  Expected to provide and enforce rules  e.g., GATT, WTO  More recently, growth of corporations and mobilization of citizens through civic associations Global governance and globalization defined  Recall our definitions of globaliation:  Multi-continental interdependence with multiple linkages (Keohane and Nye)  Deterritorialization/supraterritoriality (Scholte)  Extremely uneven  Can't make the claim that all centers are affected in the same ways  Inter-national economic relations - globalization exaggerated, a 'myth' (Hirst and Thompson) Historical progression of global governance  Clear differences between the pre-1914 and post-1945 eras in terms of global governance  Scarcity of international institutions with delegated authority prior to 1914  From 1914 to 1945, the double crisis of war and depression brought economic disintegration and heightened centralization of governance functions and political authority at the level of the nation- state  Expansion in role of different actors in global governance  In the latter half of the 20th century, economic integration resumed among the industrialized economies and within the Soviet bloc How does global governance work?  2 accounts: 2 Course: Poli Sci 2H03 Subject: Global Governance Instructor: Dr. Vermilyea Section: Evening, T01 Date: Oct.17, 2012  (1) functionalist: globalization produces an upward migration in the site of authority to the regional and supranational levels  (2) efficiency-based explanations: governance responds to shifting costs and benefits of market integration Regimes: ideas and rules about how states should behave  Most approaches see regimes as being created through state-to-state negotiations with states acting as self-interesting, goal-seeking actors pursuing the maximization of individual utility  States create regimes because they believe that a regular pattern of cooperation will bring them benefits  Sometimes states participate in regimes that aren't ideal because the cost of conflict outside of the regime is greater than the bad deal they get inside the regime World Bank/IMF  World Bank/IMF as regime: distribution of money and provision of credit can be used to foster compliance with particular rules  Loans usually conditional upon the recipients undertaking certain policies  Liberalize economies so that they can earn money to pay back the loans  Voting rights distributed based on money invested  i.e., developed countries control most of the votes  Rules clearly created by group of 7 countries that have the majority of the voting power International Labour Organization (ILO)  Appeals to morality  Conducts research on labour issues and highlights the abuse of workers' rights through reports and investigations  Facilitates negotiations between states to set minimum standards for countries to follow and publicizes failure to comply with these standards  Uses public shaming  Lack of enforcement measures - many states ignore reports and advice Global governance: actors  States  Corporate actors  Civic associations States  State retains a key role in creating and maintaining governance in the global system because of the centrality of the connection between law and political authority  Central legal
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