1. Due Week 11 in tutorial
2. 2500 words
3. Be constant with your referencing and official one, unless specified by the TA
4. 3 topics- each questions are theoretical, utilize at least one theory or in some 3 (first
5. Number of resources, Google scholar is limited. Instead use something like „web of
science‟. Do not rely on Google scholar, or just on things like JSTOR.
6. For the first question, expected to use periodicals, journals. For newspaper use lexis
7. 42%-48% of Canadian adults are functionally illiterate.
Part A- trivia questions
Part B- long answers, no essays
Topics will stop on Security till next Monday.
“an act of force to compel our opponents to fulfil our will” – nature of cohesive diplomacy
“organized violence carried on by political units against each other”- like the first one,
Clausewitz is much more explicit that it is the attempt of one actor to get out of another actor that
they would not normally do. Bull emphasises on the presence of organized violence
Singer and Small:
1000 battle deaths/year- much more in to quantitative methodology than qualitative. To
count war, quantify the number of deaths per year. War is simply present if there are a
1000 more deaths per year. That doesn‟t include the nature of some types of war.
Different people have different definitions of war. Some define war qualitatively.
The Clausewitz Concept of War:
War as an instrument of state policy is a relatively new form of organized violence
The main purpose of the use of force in Europe for the past 350 years has been primarily
to advance and/or protect the interests of the state Clausewitz concept of warfare: ultimatum/incident; declaration of war; battle or series of
battles; armistice of peace treaty
Advent of „Total War”- where the boundaries of war are fuzzier. It can be described as all
of society at war. Example: American civil war, parts of the Napoleonic wars, and the
first and second world war. Bombing of civilians was part of the military strategy.
The people fighting war are clearly identifiable, British soldier wear a particular colour,
and French soldiers wear a certain colour. They meet at a place and fight, then battle is
Characteristics of War:
Influenced by globalization
Requires highly organised societies
Autonomy of state
Revolution in Military Affairs (RMA)
War as a political act – nothing natural about the nature of war, it is an inherently
Powerful agent of historical change
Effect of media- what are the acceptable costs in relation to the resources, also the types
of troops and the number of troops. And how we garner reports.
“Outsourcing” and military contractors – what is the nature evolving role of third parties,
not just armies but the role of private military companies in the nature of warfare. These
are the changing characteristics of war.
War of a „Third Kind”
Typical wars since 1945 have had a very different profile with no single, common crisis
precipitating them. Wars since 1945 have been intra-state wars, the number of deaths in
those wars have outweigh the deaths in wars fought during or before 1945. No common
factor amongst wars of third kind as to why they occurred in the first place.
Decisive battles are few; civil wars often lasting decades- to be compared, wars are like
reds and blues fought in particular battle field and over in one day. That is not how wars
today are fought, they are characterized by attrition, etc., actions against civilians and do
not have a specific location.
Attrition, terror, psychology and actions against civilians underscore “combat”- if you
look at the number of battle deaths and they are perpetrated towards foreign military
forces, does that fit the definition of civil war. But if it is the civilian deaths, is it
terrorism or civil war? “News Wars”
“New wars” (Kaldor) – wars of the „third kind‟
Based around contradictory processes
Civil conflict and failed states- fought for control of the land or to help them.
Focus on identity
Changing role of women and children- such as the effect of war on women and children