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POLSCI 2I03 (101)
Andrew Lui (26)
Lecture 10

Lecture 10.docx

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McMaster University
Political Science
Andrew Lui

Question on securitization- short answer. A security question on the long answer. Understand the connection between concepts, application of theories, definitions. International Law: Customary law Peremptory norms (Jus Cogens) Treaty law- particularly important to IR, due to the limitations to the first two laws. It allows states to decide which particular treaties they want to enter into and which they do not. There is nothing contained in the UN or the formation of it, that it will try to be a world state. How did states go about treaties and answering incidents? What’s the difference? Why would a state pursue different types of treaties? Unilateralism- one state forcing its way upon others Bilateralism- two states involved Multilateralism- many states involved. USA is a country which pursues unilateralism more so than the other two, USA exceptionalism tells us that it really does depend on which issue areas and states they are dealing with. There have been instances where the US has pursue unilateral, bilateral (ICC, not only has the US sought exemptions of its troops working in abroad but also exemption in bilateral treaties. Most countries in South America know that when the US will involve their troops they are exempted from the treaties), and multilateral. Canada has not pursued unilateralism, doesn’t like bilateralism, it likes to celebrate the fact it is the country that has signed more multilateral treaties than any other. Why? It isn’t simply because Canadian leaders liked to do so, for instance realism would say that institutions, treaties, etc are often exercises in power. We see this often with US with unilateralism (direct application of power over a country that didn’t want you there), bilateral (agreement between two countries, example US and Columbia, US has more power. If you want access to our military hardware and our money you will sign these exemptions from ICC). Multilateral (it is simply a way in which power is reflected). But neo-liberal institutionalism tells us that if we play the game again and again you will ultimately hit a point of optimization. Power asymmetries within multilateral institutions over the long term tend to be relatively flat (one country dominating that multilateral institution over others- IMF and UN) Canada has tended to favour these type of multilateral and bilateral treaties because looking at history we have been in shadow of other power countries. Before it was our mother country, Britain, send Canadian troops to war, didn’t pay back our money. Then we went towards US, who did the same thing. We would always be overpowered if we entered in bilateral treaties against a powerful country. This explains why a state would go in one direction over other. The problem with state-centrism… Often governments control less resources than transnational actors Not all national political systems are coherent Distinguish government from society and nation from country Theorizing about different actors How do private groups, companies, and national minorities engage in transnational relations? In certain countries those countries may have more power, what does it mean in the broader picture of IR. Does it mean we have to re-theorize how we think of IR? Transnational Corporations (TNCs) Governments losing control?  Limited government control over international trade  Ability to move production constrains individual governments in regulation and taxation. Capital flights- part of capitalism in a global economy means that companies can often move their factories in various locations around the world depending on the price of labour, tax, and environmental regulations. There is often no International law or lack of it which constrains how certain transnational actors operates within IR. There is no body that oversees all TNCS around the world. Coca Cola should they be operating in Mexico would fall under the environmental regulations, taxation and the labour available there or the cheap price of it there. Some companies have been involved with killing civilians. Authority structure over TNCs generates extraterritorial impact and potential for intense conflict between governments. Race to the bottom- such that it is in a global economy damaging to many governments and societies if they say they will be less competitive with the rest of the countries. Non-legitimate groups and liberation movements: Effective ac
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