Session 2 – 2I03 – Chapters 1&2
History and change in global relations.
Historical context that has provided the backdrop and the lead up to the 21 century.
Your impression: What‟s the difference?
Connotations of different phrases are important to different scholars and activists. Differences
of these connotations and their meanings and what is implied.
What do these phrases say and what they would imply an emphasis on.
International relations focuses on sovereign nation states
World Politics encompasses different political actors
Why would the textbook choose to call this the Globalization of World politics rather than World
Global implies that some things are relevant to the entire world
Some things covered, while significant might not be relevant to some
If you paint things as global, you’re universalizing and you’re assuming things are the same
for everyone around the globe.
Globalization is bringing down the nation-state, because global forces are undermining the
ability of societies to govern themselves, and control their own economies
What is the idea of a Nation-State?
It is not only a key concept, but key organizing concepts that help understand issues
How did the nation state come to be? And what does it mean for us.
Max-Weber: The state is the form of human community that (successfully) lays claim to the
monopoly of legitimate physical violence within a particular territory – and this idea of
„territory‟ is an essential defining feature”
o Max Weber, Politics as a vocation
The modern state is thought of as a type of political organization that has bureaucracy.
Legitimate physical violence? Violence that is justified? At the end of the day, it is it‟s right
Policies in place in Canada control and limit how much force can be used.
Only the state is allowed to use legitimate force within that state.
It has the ability to tax its citizen – Taxation is an important part of the state, for example. Joseph Stalin: The nation is a „historically evolved, stable community of people, formed on the basis of a
common language, territory, economic life and a common culture.‟
For many people the idea of a nation is linked to ethnicity
Emphasis on shared ideas, culture, language, history
Blood lines and nationalism
Nazi regime was focused on the idea of German being in the blood. A Unique connection to
the land. Bloodline, heritage. This became a source of exclusion and trying to make sure that
complete connection to the land or nation was strict.
Social constructivism – Imagined communities. Groupings of people that are made up. In
order to have a sense of us, versus them. This is not the unanimous view.
Patriotism is having strong feelings of support or pride for one‟s political state
Nationalism is a political doctrine which holds that the political and national unit should be congruent
Nationalism tends to be the idea or political doctrine that suggests that the political state
should overlap perfectly. That all of the people who belong to that nation should live in that
state, and all people who live in that state should be nationalist.
Nationalism versus Nation-State
o National Communities and Territorial State Borders
Ethnic Nationalism: Stresses specific elements such as common language, race, religion and ancestry,
often in a context of xenophobia and exclusion
Yugoslavia: was formally a state with many nations that lasted for decades, and this many
nations that had previously existed in the 90s broke down and this problem of nationalism
and nation-state came into discussion
What allowed Yugoslavia to exist for many years was civic nationalism.
Civic Nationalism: Common ideas, preferences, values, and priorities, often in a context of multicultural,
multiethnic tolerance and stability
Yugoslavia was able to exist
Similar economic preference
A sense of patriotism and pride in Yugoslavia
The fact that they were able to get along was a form of pride.
Canada is certainly a „state‟. But is it accurate to say that there is a Canadian „nation‟?
o Civic Nationalism?
o Are English speaking Canadians a separate nation within Canada?
o If we take the idea that Canada is a civic nation? Are there common ideas,
preferences, values and priorities? Are there Canadian ideas and priorities? Politeness? (Stereotypical)
Canada is built upon law and order?
How does the history of slavery and genocide complicate this? Does the
legacy of how Canada came to exist is based on the expropriation of people?
Does it undermine the claim about law and order?
The idea of what counts as a nation is a conversation to be had.
Ours is a world of Nation-Sates
Dimensions of Globalization
Nation-states provide us with Status Quo?
Phenomenon of Globalization
o The globalization of trade and commerce and marketing techniques
o Consumers, owners, suppliers, etc.
o Capital, and movement of money. Investment in products, investing in places.
o Mechanisms of dealing with threats
o And Threats themselves!
o Nuclear wars
o Impact of a war might be felt by everyone
o Human rights
o Law to an international context
o Law used to make sense within the state
o Now that the movement to the 21 century, ideas of laws have been moving broadly
Science and resources in globalization
o Worries about environmental and ecological effects about our actions.
Linguistic barriers (Social globalization)
o Have been broken down
o Between cultures, between religions
o Sharing of ideas with increased movement
Based on, either your „common sense‟ understanding, or your reading of the textbook, how
would you define „globalization‟?
o Shifting of barriers that used to define nations and states o Interdependence in terms of a business perspective
o Economic dimension and perspective of globalization
o Integration of ideas, values, religions, thoughts
o What is globalization? What does it mean? What source of phenomena should we
Subnational: below or „within‟ states
Transnational: „Beyond‟ or „across‟ state borders
o Tends to mean actors acting beyond state borders
o Transnational corporations
Tend to be based on one country but act across border
Put pressure on other governments
A corporation from Montreal can have impact in Cairo, Egypt. Acting across
Transnational activities such as twitter.
o Globalization increased, so has the recognition of transnational problems requiring
global regulation (climate change, to proliferation of weapons of mass destruction). It
has also led to an explosive growth of transnational and global forms of rule-making
International: „between‟ state governments
Supranational: „over‟ or „above and beyond‟ states
o Tends to be reserved for types of organizations that act above states
o United Nations?
Section of Actors in 21 century world politics (All of these actors are relevant to global affairs)
International Organizations (IOs) Regional Organizations
Social Media Users
Dimensions of Change
o Shift so that we can no longer pin that something will happen or be relevant or occur
in one particular situation or place
o As social, political, and economic activities are increasingly „stretched‟ across, they
are no longer organized solely according to a strictly territorial logic
o Under conditions of globalization the relative significance of borders and territory, as
constraints upon social action and exercise of power, is declining.
o Movement of certain issues, policymaking processes to be internationalized, but not
o When people talk about this, they talk about things that have moved to world politics
level. Nation-state players.
o The idea of internationalization presumes that they remain discrete national units
with clearly demarcated borders.
o Globalization: refers to a process in which the very distinction between the domestic
and the external breaks down.
o Trend of some of the things that are talked about as Globalization, regionalized,
flows of economics and culture
o Things have grown but NOT GLOBALLY, but have grown to certain regions.
o Social networking
o The point is that the North American Free Trade agreement has fixed in trade
arrangements, but it has extended to different areas of the world. European Union for
European Union is working on the political change to make sure that the
flows of goods, services, economics and all are organized in a way that is
o Regional Organizations: African Unions, ASEA, GCC
o Regionalization is conceived as the intensification of patterns of interconnectedness
and integration among states that have common borders or are geographically
o A historical process involving a fundamental shift or transformation in the spatial
scale of human social organization that links distant communities and expands the
reach of power relations across regions and continents
o “Contemporary Globalization” economic, military, legal, ecological, cultural, and
o Patterns of globalization as highly asymmetric, exhibiting a distinctive geography of
exclusion and inclusion. Inequality is deeply inscribed in the very process of
contemporary globalization such that it is more accurately described as
The three waves of Globalization
o The age of discovery (1450-1850) – Shaped by European expansion and conquest
o Second wave (1850-1945) – Spread and entrenchment of European Empires
o Contemporary globalization (1960+) – Shift of economic powers, icons of globalized
Emergence of the Nation-State in European History 1500-Present
1500 marks the turning point of authority in Europe
Before the 1500 there wasn‟t much global politics to speak of.
Much of medieval life in Europe was centralized around the authority of the Catholic pope.
Feudal and Aristocratic societies that were in Europe
But authority was central and it flowed upward to the authority of the church.
What gave kings their legitimacy? God had chosen these people as his representative on
Columbus reaches the ‘new World’ (1492)
o The gold awaited for Europeans to claim
Protestant Reformation in Europe (1517)
o Luther posted a list in front of the church door which stated things that he saw wrong.
o Henry the 8 , separated the church and England
o Wars between Protestants and Catholics and various groups. As well as nation states
that identified themselves as Protestant or Catholic.
o Groups identified themselves with a certain group
o Distribution of authorities.
o Addition of complications
European Powers in the 1600‟s Holy Roman Empire (House of Hapsburg)
France (House of Bourbon)
Thirty Years War (1618-1648)
Cardinal Richelieu (Raison d‟état)
o Realist tradition
o State‟s goals or ambitions (national) interest should be the thing that determines
policy. What determines statecraft should be what is in the best interest of the nation.
o Balance of Power – Is a political dynamic where states are growing in power are
„checked‟ by other states that work together to oppose them and apply resistance
Keeping the balance often involved shifting and opportunistic alliances,
agreements and maneuvers
o Italian diplomat and public servant
o Cartable political questions were prime