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POLSCI 2I03 (101)

Session3 Political Sci 2I03 Summer 2013

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Political Science
Mark Busser

2I03 Session 3 Chapters 3,5,23 5/22/2013 3:23:00 PM Theories of International Relations Should Theories be:  Scientific? o Describes natural laws? o Natural sciences?  Humanistic?  Normative?  Objective?  Complex?  Parsimonious? Elements  Interests – What do people want? What do states want? How do they translate identification of interests?  Identities – How important is cultural identity? National? Heritage, language, philosophy? How important is it how they perceive themselves?  Ideas – What role do Ideas play? Ideas in terms of arguments? Visions of the good life? How important are actor‟s ideas in international relations? Realism Classical, Structural Neo-Realism, Neo-Conservatism Classical Realism  Is a tradition that emerged in the aftermath of the second world war  Thucydides – Sparta and Athens o Along the course of the Peloponnesian war o “The standard of justice depends on the equality of power to compel and that in fact the strong do what they have the power to do and the weak accept what they have to accept” o Power is the currency that determines the fate. o At the end of the day those arguments depend on the ability to reinforce them with power o Brute force power that matters at the end of the day  Thomas Hobbes (The Leviathan) o “Life in the state of nature is marked by “continual fear and danger of violent death, and the life of man [is] solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short.” 1 o Agrees with Thucydides o At the end of the day the deciding factor becomes, who has power. Deals that are made are broken, promises are set aside. o Fear of a violent and grizzly death Outbreak of World War II o Appeasements mean the ability or attempt to satisfy the emerging Nazi power. o Limits of Idealism o Critics of Chamberlain and his policies referred to his ideas as „idealism‟ o Idealism was later developed.  Emphasis on power and domination  Conflict is inevitable because of egoism, human drives, and other dimensions of human nature  Exploration of how questions of morality apply to the international realm  Adopts a state-centric or statist approach to international relations, focusing on the nation- state (Statism) – Core number 1 of Realism: term given to the idea of the state as the legitimate representative of the collective will of the people. o Nation-state should be the fundamental unit o We should pay attention to the nation-state o Explain world politics best by focusing on nation-state: as a result o Legitimacy of the state is what enables it to exercise authority within its domestic borders. Outside of the state is ANARCHY.  Emphasis on „statesmanship‟ or wise leadership by foreign-policy makers and heads of state o White male upper class domain o Statesmanship was seen as the governing factor that decided how global politics was taken o How to identify the fundamental truths of global politics  Intended to be a guiding set of understandings Trends in Social Science (1930 and 1940s)  Behaviorism: An approach that focuses mainly on examining what human beings do, on their actual behavior, rather than trying to „get into their heads‟ o What people do o What actors do o Setting aside interpretations, motives and ideas o The best thing to do is step back and watch what happens 2  Cause & Effect  What does external stimuli do?  Scientism: The idea that the social world, like the natural world, operates according to „covering laws‟ o The natural sciences and the scientific method have universal applications. Not just in the sciences, but in the social sciences. Scientific experimentation.  Rationalism: The idea that complex insights can be developed by analyzing what typical or model actors would do, given certain clear preferences and rules. Reinhold Niebuhr  Christian Realism  “God grant me the serenity to accept the things I cannot change; courage to change the things I can; and wisdom to know the difference”  Some things in global politics cannot be changed E.H Carr – 20 years crisis 1919-1939  “Immature thought is predominately purposive and utopian. Though which rejects purpose altogether is the thought of old age. Mature thought combines purpose with observation and analysis”  We shouldn‟t see the world through rose tinted glasses hoping to see what we‟d like to see, but instead what it is Hans Morgenthau  Scientific man VS power politics  Politics among nations: The struggle for power and peace (1948)  “Politics, like society in general is governed by objective laws that have their roots in human nature” (1948) In Summary:  Classical realism emerged as response to the perceived failings of interwar „*idealism*‟ and advocated an approach that emphasizes the omnipresent danger of community breakdown  Classical realists explained this danger with reference to human nature and the nature of states  It emphasized the consequent need to pursue the accumulation of power to ensure survival. 3 Overview Classical Realism – Begins with Thucydides‟ representation of power politics as a law of human behavior. The drive for power and the will to dominate are held to be fundamental aspects of human nature. The behavior of the state as a self-seeking egoist is understood to be merely a reflection of the characteristics of the people that comprise the state. Morgenthau, Hobbes and Thucydides in Classical Realism 4 5/22/2013 3:23:00 PM Cold War Structural Realism – “Defensive realism”  Emergence of the Cold War  1. Rivalry between the USSR and the USA  2. A clash of Competing Ideologies o Capitalism, Communism  3. A series of conflicts fought through proxies  Called the Cold war, the USSR and the USA never fought each other. It never emerged as a „hot‟ war (so to speak) o Series of conflicts fought through proxies around the developing world o Sought to emerge influence over the new economies  Structural realists concur that international politics is essentially a struggle for power but do not endorse the classical realist assumption that this is a result of human nature. o Attribute security competition and inter-state conflict to the lack of an overarching authority above states and the relative distribution of power in the international system o Kenneth Waltz – defined the structure in terms of three elements Organizing Principle Differentiation of Units Distribution of Capabilities Anarchy: decentralized realm of Functionally similar sovereign Relative distribution of power international politics states. Level-unit variation is is key variable in Hierarchy: basis of domestic irrelevant understanding outcomes such order as war and peace, alliance, politics and the balance of power The Russian Revolution (1917)  Communism and Communist bloc  Social and political ideology that suggest how politics and the economy, suggest placing the economy in the hands of the workers that do most of the work  Karl Marx (1818-1883) – The elite were in charge, and the proletariat produced the goods the elite consumed. o German Thinker o Marxism, Socialism and Communism o Suggesting how socialist and communist societies would work o Explaining how social relations worked 5 What was at stake ideologically?  Capitalism o Free market shaping of the economy and society o Emphasis on private property, investment and individual rights  Investment of private property  Freedoms that come with property, investment and individual rights  Allowed people to take risks and be creative Elections of leaders from social elites in questionable elections  Communism o Central planning of the economy and society o Emphasis on socially shared property and overall collective goods o Elections of leaders from social elites in questionable elections Vladimir Lenin (1870-1924)  “Leninism” or “Marxism-Leninism”  Leading party should emerge that exercises a strong leadership role. They should drag the rest of society. Russian revolution saw Lenin bring some of his visions of society  Union of socialist soviet republics o Some of the collective and local organizations that had emerged during the revolution o Debate of economic ideas Joseph Stalin (1879-1953)  Stalinism  Purges of political opponents  Became the leader of the USSR once Lenin passed away Non aggression pact with Nazi Germany  Molotov Ribbentrop Pact  Betrayal by Germany (Operation Barbarossa)  USSR joined the allies to fight the Nazis as a result The Big Three Allies  Churchill (UK)  Roosevelt (US)  Stalin (USSR)
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