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POLSCI 2I03 (101)
Lecture

Session4Political Sci 2I03 Summer 2013

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Department
Political Science
Course
POLSCI 2I03
Professor
Mark Busser
Semester
Summer

Description
Session 4 2I03 5152013 25900 PM The cold war part 2Continuation from Session 3 The Cold War Part 2 Nuclear Strategy On Monday Structural RealismLooks at structures and impact on international relations Cold War Tactical and strategic supremacy The Cold WarRivalry between the USSR and the USAA clash of competing ideologiesA series of conflicts Nuclear Test by Britain 1952Horizontal Proliferationo More and more countries get added to the chartVertical proliferationo Numbers on the chart start to go up Nuclear StrategyFirst strike The initiative use of nuclear weapons before any opponent has a chance to use them first o Many countries reserve the right to use nuclear weaponsSecond strike The responsive use of nuclear weapons as a reaction to a launched or detonated first strike o Threat of a second strike was an important pillar of nuclear strategy Nuclear deterrence The practice of using the threat of a second strike to deter or dissuade opponents away from considering a first strike o Worked in the long rangeCuban RevolutionCuba becomes communist Fidel Castro and Che GuevaraCuban Missile Crisis October 1962 o The USSR moved nuclear weapons to Cuba o Brinksmanship o Diplomatic tension and nuclear war on the other hando Any miscommunication could result in one of these weapons being launched and initiating a nuclear escalationo Nuclear Missile crisis was avertedo Movie 13 DaysAdvanced Nuclear StrategyPreemptive Strike The strategic use of nuclear weapons when an opponent is perceived to have made moves to use them firstNuclear Escalation A cycle of attacks responses retaliations growing in intensity and magnitude o Any false move could lead to escalationMutually assured destruction MAD a situation where the threat of nuclear retaliation is so severe as to guarantee that all parties will be utterly destroyedo Either combatant launched nuclear war the result would be utter destructiono Threat of MAD is arguably one of the things that only added to the deterrent capabilities of nuclear weapons o Might have prevented nuclear war from happening Further Horizontal ProliferationNuclear Tests by France 1960 China 1964 Nuclear NonProliferation Treaty NPT July 1968To put limitsNuclear Arms ControlNot to get rid but to control their proliferation Horizontally and vertically Sagans proliferation pessimism argument o Professional military organizations because of common biases inflexible routines and parochial interests display organizational behaviors that are likely to lead to deterrence failures and deliberate or accidental war o Because future nucleararmed states are likely to have militaryrun or weak civilian governments they will lack the positive constraining mechanisms of civilian control while military biases may serve to encourage nuclear weapons use specifically during a crisisNuclear NonProliferation Treaty NPT July 1968Recognized 5 nuclear weapons states o United States Soviet Union UK France China o Agreed not to pursue development and not to assist in horizontal proliferation o Forbade nonnuclear states from seeking to gain nuclear weapons o Israel Cuba Pakistan and India did not sign New Nuclear Weapons TestsIndia 1974Pakistan 1998
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