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POLSCI 2I03 (101)

Session11 Political Sci 2I03 Summer 2013

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McMaster University
Political Science
Mark Busser

June 12 , 2013 2I03 The scope of International Ethics Cosmopolitanism, communitarianism, and pluralism (Which one is more sound?) Two ideas of Ethics 1. Deontological Ethics a. Focuses on actions that are „good‟ and „bad‟ in themselves 2. Consequentialist Ethics a. Focuses on actions that are „good‟ and „bad‟ insofar as they lead towards some valued „ends‟ b. What results are born out by these actions? Approaches to Global Ethics Moral cosmopolitanism Moral communitarianism Moral pluralism Views the human world as a Views the world as a Views the world as a single community with collection of distinct and collection of distinct and common rules, principles and separate communities with separate communities with mutual obligations very little or no common minimalist shared moral - Egalitarian approach morality and few to no standards - Moral Universalism (some obligations - Skeptical about things are just RIGHT and - Human societies are cosmopolitanism some things are WRONG) localized, rich and culture - Focus on the importance - Correspond to the basic - Relationship, context, of individuals having the facts about humanity knowing about each other opportunity to participate - Relativists and cultural as well as backgrounds and in a society, because it‟s biases shouldn‟t be taken histories local? „too‟ seriously, as there are- Shifts the conversation - Agree with some basic principles of setting to what really is communitarianism agree humanity and the rights important on problems with that people deserve - Collectiveness, belonging, cosmopolitanism participation and sharing Moral Cosmopolitanism  Human world is a single community with common rules o Immanuel Kant  Foundations of the Metaphysics of Morals  “Act only on that maxim through which you can at the same time will that is shall become a universal law”  Categorical Imperative – Do unto others, as you would have them do unto you.  We treat human beings as ends rather than means – We should not take a consequentialist view, we shouldn‟t use people or take advantage. o Universalizability o Inclusion o Egalitarianism o Consistency June 12 , 2013 2I03 Moral Communitarianism  Views the world as a collection of distinct and separate communities with very little or no common morality and few to no obligations o We should look for ethical insights in actual communities (religious, folk tales and experiences) – this is where ethical insights come from. Instead of being an approach that isn‟t willing to include everyone, communitarian says that there is something meaningful about these ties.  Communitarian Ideas o Particularism  Emphasizes the „special relationships‟ that emerge in communities of shared value and argues that duties beyond border are different in kind o Universalism reflects certain people‟s ideas and is often imperialist o Communities make choices and ought to take responsibility for their decisions  Pursue projects and take risks together o Social structures of obligation require accountable legal and government structures which are not present nor really feasible globally  Ethics takes place within context, and political contexts, where laws and structures need to be fitted to the community in question o FOCUS ON:  Self-determination  Pursuing projects and going through experiences on their own terms  Belonging  Membership  Connection Moral Pluralism  Views the world as a collection of distinct and separate communities within minimalist shared moral standards between them  John Rawls o A Theory of Justice (1971) o The law of People‟s (1993) o The principles of Justice are chosen behind a veil of ignorance (1971)  By thinking about how actors would design society, if they stood behind a veil of ignorance IDEAS: 1. The idea of Justice as Fairness can be thought about in terms of a hypothetical situation 2. How would people in a original position behind a veil of ignorance design the institutions of a fair society 3. They would use public reason to develop principles of fairness and reach reflective equilibrium and an overlapping consensus a. Long discussions behind the veil of ignorance 4. People would agree on principles of distributive justice informed by the difference principle The Law of People 1. In the laws of people‟s Rawls defend his idea that the principles of justice and his theory of justice apply within communities but not in relations between states 2. Instead, a more minimalist „law of peoples‟ governs international life and ethics, with respect for sovereignty and non-interference June 12 , 2013 2I03  John Vincent o “The general function of international society is to separate and cushion, not to act.”  Idea of Separation and Cushion, as creating a good and appropriate space for states and communities to do their things  Cushioning for states to have their OWN space without other states getting involved o Was a member of the English school of IR  Thomas Nagel (2005) o “The accident of being born in a poor rather than a rich country is as arbitrary as a determinant of one‟s fate as the accident of being born into a poor rather than a rich family in the same economy.”  VALUES of PLURALISM o Self Determination o Diversity o Autonomy o Coexistence o “Good fences make good neighbors”  Challenges of Pluralism o Unless genocide is happening let people clear problems themselves Case Study : The Rwandan Genocide Widely seen as one of the most dramatic experiences. Rwanda and „Primal‟ Narratives  Observes have been critiqued for describing the genocide in ways that invoke key words like „ancient‟, „primal‟, „primordial‟ and „base‟. Are these concepts appropriate?  Rwandan Independence (1962) – Hutu & Tutsu o What led us to the genocide in 1994? o HISTORY  1400 Kingdom of Rawanda Founded  1884 Germany claims Ruanda-Urundi  1916 Belgium takes control during WWI  1919 Becomes a Belgian Mandate territory  1959: Social revolution under Kayibanda  1962: Independence as Rwanda  1973: Coup Habyrarimana Becomes president  1990 Rwanda Civil War Begins  1994: Genocide  Hutu, Tutsi and Twa o Three key ethnic groups in the Great Lakes region of central Africa o Hutu are the most populous group, followed by the Tutsi (the Twa are a small minority) o Hutu-Tutsi distinctions are complicated and often questionable: Ethnicity? Caste? o Distinctions between Hutu and Tutsi influenced by European colonial rule and racial profiling June 12 , 2013 2I03 o Tutsi owned cattle, and Hutu worked for the Tutsi  Ethnic relations and colonialism o No record of systematic political violence between groups o Germany and Belgium used a strategy of „divide and rule‟ in colonial Rwanda o Colonial powers codified, and administered Tutsi/Hutu difference  Measurements of physiognomy: body  Increasing racialization of differences  Administered and identity cards listing „ethnicity‟  CLASSIFIED and CODIFIED the differences!  Those with 10 or more cows were Tutsi  Those with 9 or less were Hutus  Children were identified on the identity of the FATHER, not of the MOTHER. o Colonials privileged Tutsi over Hutu  Anti-Tutsi Attacks o Attacks on Tutsi (1959) during „social revolution‟  Caused many Tutsis to flee to Uganda  Identity cards categories were racists  Emergence of Armed Conflict o Formation of Rwanda Patriotic Front (RPF)  Organized in Uganda amongst Tutsi diaspora o RPF Launched invasion (1990)  Seen as an „insurgency‟ o Rwandan Civil War (1990-1993)  Fighting between RPF and Habyarimana government th  Mini-pogroms against Tutsis  April 6 , 1994 o The president of Rwanda was returning from peace summits o On the way back for negotiations his plane was shot down  Role of Mass Media o Radio-Television Libre Des Mille Collines (RTLM)  Repeated portrayal of Tutsi as cockroaches  Dehumanization  infestation, extermination o Kangura newspaper  Printed „Hutu Ten Commandments” C.1990  Framed Tutsi as threats, and women as secret and dangerous elements within society  Outgroup homogeneity: “they are all the same”  Chief editor Hassan Ngeze convicted in 2003 of genocide and crimes against humanity at ICTR  It would issue the names of escaped Tutsi and prompted people go out
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