June 17, 2013
Political Science 2I03E
Politics in the Post-Cold War Period
President Geroge HW Bush Senior
Speech to Congress on September 11 , 1990
Persian Gulf Crisis
o Sadam Hussein‟s forces in Iraq had invaded their neighbor Kuwait
o “A new partnership of nations has begun, and we stand today at a unique and
extraordinary moment. The crisis in the Persian Gulf, as grave as it is, also offers
a rare opportunity to move toward an historic period of cooperation. Out of these
troubled times, our 5 objective – a „new world order‟ can emerge: a new era –
freer from the threat of terror, stronger in the pursuit of justice and more secure in
the quest for peace. An era in which the nations of the world, east and west, north
and south, can prosper and live in harmony” GEORGE W. Bush
What does our present global order look like? Is there even a global „order‟?
Two questions are at hand. The first is whether there is now a distinct pattern of order in
the post-cold war world, and if so, what are its principal elements. The second is whether
this order should be defined in terms of globalization.”
Is it a buzzword or fad to talk about Globalization?
Typologies of “order”
The idea of order usually focuses on the „stable arrangements of certain referent objects”
International order refers to stable relations between nation-states, emphasizing the
values of stability, harmony, territorial integrity and autonomy
World order refers to stable relations between human, emphasizing values such as justice,
development, emancipation and rights.
The job in the international society is to buffer, not to add.
Even within nation state structure and international state order, can have plenty of value
being suppressed and undervalued.
Illusion of interstates, although might be satisfying.
We need to look at typology of order that focuses on individuals
Questions concerning globalization
Analytical Evaluate Political
Is globalization a „new‟ or old Is globalization a good or bad What should governments do?
phenomenon? thing? How can or should global
How is the power of the Who benefits and who loses governance be democratized?
nation-state changing? from globalization? Is what ways is globalization
Which actors are most What new obligations do being resisted?
important? individuals have?
UTILITY OF CONCEPT
Fragmentation June 17, 2013
Political Science 2I03E
What is likely trajectory for human community, social organization and group
Where are human beings going?
Diogenes of Sinope “I am a citizen of the world”
Michael Walzer “I am not a citizen of the world.. I am not even aware that there is a
world such that one could be a citizen of it. No one has ever offered me citizenship or
described the naturalization process, or enlisted me in the world‟s institutional structures,
or given me an account of its decision procedures… or provided me with a list of the
benefits and obligations of citizenship, or shown me the world‟s calendar and the
common celebrations and commemorations of its citizens”
The scope of Human Sympathy
“Our sense of solidarity is strongest when those with whom solidarity is expressed are
thought of as „one of us‟ where „us‟ means something smaller and more local than the
human race‟ Richard Rorty
The fact that a person is physically near to us – may make it more likely that we shall
assist him, but this does not show that we ought to help him rather than another who
happens to be further away” Peter Singer
Can one be a citizen of the world?
1. If so, what does that mean?
2. If no, why not?
Realism and globalization
For realists, globalization signifies „exogenous‟ technical, material and
organization changes that adjust the power distribution in the international system
The key question for states people is how to respond in order to pursue the
Liberalism and Globalization June 17, 2013
Political Science 2I03E
For realists, globalization also has „endogenous‟ effects of new actors become
increasingly relevant above and below the government level
The key question for states people is how to respond in order to steer progress in
the right way.
Constructivism and globalization
For constructivists, may of the most relevant question is how globalization
processes are reshaping the interplay of identity and interests: the roles of norms,
arguments, and the pressures of legitimacstand ideas.
How identity might be changing in the 21 century
COX: Problem-solving VS Critical Theory
Problem Solving Theory: Takes the world as it finds it, with the prevailing social
and power relationships and the institutions into which they are organized, as the
given framework for action
Critical theory: stands apart from the prevailing order of the world and asks how
that order came about
o Doesn‟t take those relationships and power balances and structures but
calls them to question
o Often, but not always takes a mandatory approach asking questions how
theories might be recast or reframed and prioritized
o Critical theories of international politics, but instead critically engage and
question whether certain institutions and practices are fair and just and
ethical and sound.
o Whether they are as permanent, ever lasting and objective as they‟re made
out to see.
o MARXIST THEORY – Reframed and recast some of the basic questions
of global politics
o The history of all hitherto existing societies is the history of class struggle
– Marx and Engels, the Communist Manifesto. Emancipations from the
scriptures of capitalism.
Capitalism and Imperialism – Has been explored by Marxists.
Post colonialist readings brought us me