Started on: 01/22/2014
C LASS N OTES FOR : P OLI S CI 2J03
McMaster University, Fall 2013
W EDNESDAY , JANUARY 22, Y
Research Proposal andAnnotated Bibliography
- Good proposals communicate to the reader in as much detail as possible
- PROPOSALTO COVER
o General idea of the investigation
Topic intended to pursue
Describe to the reader the assumptions
o Central research question
Single sentence focusing on a single issue, contradiction, puzzle or dilemma
Paper written for this course is in response to a ‘question’
What is it?
Analysis is important!
Describing is “what happened”
Analyzing “why did something happen, the causes?”
o Need to explain how the topic is related to the textbook.
Have to be able to convince the T.A; what the relationship between investigating
and what is being studied
How does it fit the themes of the course or empirical context
o Describe how you will pursue the research question - Topics that will be looked at!
E.G development in Sub-SaharanAfrica (What factors have inhibited
development in Sub-SaharanAfrica) -
• Look at the history of colonialism?
• Artificial political boundaries
• Deteriorating terms of commodities
o Annotated Bibliography
5Academic journal articles and 5 books
Summaries of each source - 2 sentences
Have to have had at least looked at it or an abstract of it!
ABSTRACT for argument in articles
BOOK - Introduction, etc.
What is each generally arguing?
Periodical - PAIS International or Social Sciences Abstracts
L IBERAL O RDER
- Using this massive increase in productivity
- Britain and other European powers set up as International order (Liberal and imperial)
o Liberal - Free trade, introduction, never universal
Angie © McMaster University 1
Winter 2014 Started on: 01/22/2014
Initiated by Britain and adopted by other countries
Notions: concept of comparative advantage
Idea of comparative advantage is that everyone can benefit from free trade - if it
specializes in the resources that it makes best
Free trade system was initiated by Britain, many countries adopted
U.S and Germany initially rejected Free trade in exchange of Economic
Nationalism which would strengthen their economy
• Countries would fix the value of their currency to cold
• British pound = xGold
• Kept this value for over 100 years
• End of Napoleonic wars to the beginning of the First WW
• Important to have stability in the monetary system!
• Established Gold standard which provided states to invest in other
countries, knowing that the value of their money was secure
• SECURITY INSTITUTION… Balance of Power (Concert of Europe)
Balance of Power
• CONCERT OF EUROPE
• Countries would continually try to balance off the strongest power in
• Shifting alliances
• Depended on who was the rising power in Europe
• To try and maintain the ‘balance’
o Imperialism -
British, French, German, Japan, United States in the Philippines, Russia
1878 - 1913 - 1/6 of the Surface world area came under European orAmerican
Most dramatic element was the “scramble forAfrica”
• African continent was divided amongst the European powers
Examples of Colonization and Imperialism
• CONGO: Personal property of the King of Belgium
o It was happening just at the time that a new product was desired
by the rest of the world - RUBBER
o The Industrialized world needed rubber quickly; only place they
could get it was fromAfrica, a massive operation was conducted
to get rubber fromAfrican rubber trees.
o Conditions were horrific; people were forced into the forest to get
o 10 million people may have died in trying to retrieve rubber.
o Heart of Darkness - Joseph Conrad
W HY DID IMPERIALISM COME ABOUT ?
a. Imperialism was caused by the nature of Capitalism
b. Something about the need / desire of the capitalist power to expand and had to continually
search for new markets and resources
2 Started on: 01/22/2014
c. Lenin’s analysis of Imperialism
d. Economic system!
a. JOHN HODSON
i. The nature of capitalism did encourage imperialism. Disagreed with the Marxist,
because capitalism did not have to be imperialist. Could change it, so that one did
not have to expand into other markets, but could expand it domestically. E.G
Britain pay workers more, to allow them to consume more!
b. Explanation in the economic system
3. Power Politics
a. Interest of the state
b. More of an economic nationalist spin to it
c. Colonies weren’t actually all that economically valuable
d. States engaged in Imperialism because other states were engaged in Imperialism
e. Military competition!
f. When Germany saw that Britain and France were dividingAfrica, felt it was in its interest
to also secure colonies, to counter British and French expansion. Similarly Italy grabbed
parts of Africa. Series of different explanations as to why there was this new imperialism
in the late 1800s.
WWI AND WWII
1. System created in the 1800s runs from Napoleonic wars WWI
a. Eruption of WWI turns into a massive conflict in Europe, which is different from any
previous war, except for theAmerican Civil war
b. WWI - Destruction of Imperialism, rise of Movements against Markets
i. Backlash against the liberal market
ii. Prior to the WWI - There were liberal economic principles, but after the WWI
there was a rise of soc