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C LASS N OTES FOR : P OLI S CI 2J03
McMaster University, Winter 2014
W EDNESDAY , MARCH 12, Y
- General movement, however there are complications
o 1992 Rio Conference on sustainable development
How do you pursue economic development without destroying the environment?
Important point to know, the real conference ends up inserting this sustainable
We want to develop economically, but we want to do so in a way that does not
destroy the environment.
o 1997 East Asian Crisis raises questions about “Asian” model and development
Financial crisis that took place in the development miracles of EastAsia that saw
leadership in development
Late 1990s go into a crisis period
Was the EastAsian model wrong? Was it flawed? Was it state led development?
How do you interpret the East Asian financial crisis?
o China continues massive industrialization raising environmental, economic and political
The role of China, the most populous country in the world
o Questions about financial liberalization - the deregulation about financial markets is
thrown into crisis by the fact that the US financial system almost collapses and with it the
WESTERN financial system collapses.
o What will happen in developing countries that attempt to pursue the same model?
o Critiques of the Neoliberal model - “You can’t let market forces dictate your model”
o Return to the developmental model?
o BRICS assert themselves during US and Euro Weakness
o Increased bargaining power to shape the rules surrounding development
o Common climate change interest?
o Serious conflict with developed and developing countries regarding climate change?
Reduction of CO emissions?
How will we reduce these emissions in a manner that is acceptable by all of the
countries in the world
Developed countries have created the problem of climate change, and have grown
rich and developed
Countries that have not participated in this process question whether they should
pay the price, or whether they are allowed to develop as well.
Who bears the burden of climate change?
D EVELOPMENT K EY ISSUES
Angie © McMaster University 1
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- Organization of development
- Economic Aid
- North-South Conflict
ORGANIZATION OF DEVELOPMENT
- How is it organized? Which international organizations do we need to consider?
- World Bank for development funds (long term financial assistance for development)
- Regional banks - Inter-American development bank
- IMF - Financial crisis
- World Trade Organization - trade policies
o It’s not a development organization, but policies can have an impact over the kinds of
strategies that developing countries will choose.
- NGOs - OXFAM, etc. which lobby international organizations to try and influence policies of
- NGOs become the deliverer of development policies
World Bank (The World Bank Group)
- IBRD, IDA, FC, MIGA, ICSID
- The bank gives out loans, articulates norms of behavior, adjudicates disputes
- “Knowledge bank”
o Most recent knowledge bout what works in development
- IBRD gives to middle income and credit worthy poor countries
- IDAgives long term loans at 0% to the poorest countries
- In 1980s moved from basic needs to SAP lending
o The shift on lending had a heavy impact on the poorest groups in society, such as women.
o Gendered division of labour
o Structural adjustment programs
- Mid 1990s switches to sustainable development / norms / lending
o Have to take into account environmental impact
- Intense criticism over environmental impact e.g. large dam projects
- Still puts economic growth first
o If you are talking to the bank and you are advocating that they invest in Girls education.
You cannot argue that you’d invest in girls education, not just because its good, but
because its financially beneficial. Whatever policy needs adaptation, that this will have
economic payoff. It runs to increase economic growth.
- Bank and democracy
o Votes are based on contributions
o In the case of the world bank which has a formal voting structure, the votes are based on
how much you contribute, if you compare the bank to other international organization you
find that the bank is much more open to civil society groups.
o Lots of environmental groups, women’s groups that engage with the bank on policy.
o Institutions created - relatively open to civil society groups e.g. inspection panel
Inspection panel for example, so that you can appeal to them
Provides a channel of communication between the local society and the IO that
goes around the local and national state
- Many constituencies - Rich and poor states, civil society in North and South, business community,
o Creditors have a certain set of interest
o Purposes change over time
o Money to go to girls education
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