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Political Theory 2O06.docx

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McMaster University
Political Science
James Ingram

Political Theory 2O06 9/11/2012 8:33:00 AM Athenian Democracy  Where Politics was born  how to value democracy and how its tied to Athens  30,000 citizens; medics like slaves, women had no rights; were hidden  no legal jurisdictions; no judges, lawyers  assumed people knew to abide by laws (People’s Court)  Peoples Court o randomly selected citizens o everyone was present o assembly democracy o everyone was involved o highly public life  were paid  economic guaranteed  paid to be apart of people court  material supported  citizens cannot be made slaves  imperial power  unsettled power  not a peaceful way of order  everyone had an opinion o caused chaos Paraclies  everyone matters, no class distinction  democracy is communism  Power is in the hand of the people  demokratos (people power)  monarchy is the opposite (mono=one archy=rule)  democracy Is associated with freedom o free state(community is free) o Autonomias (self law)  living under ones own law  model for other states to follow  leads to imperialism  he who only minds his only business, should have no business at all  isonomia (everyone is equal before the law o CLAMS TO WON LAND o EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE o ROBUST TO EQUAL RIGHTS  isegoria o freedom of speech o anyone can propose a law  Athenians are unusually law abiding Protagorus  Claims to teaches virtues, politics o Aristotle would say you cannot teach virtues o not hereditary o knowledge is hard to enquire  what is virtue  is virtue teachable  people are not competent to rule  anti democratic  more like aristocratic  Virtue o political not to the good life o having a sense of justice o knowledge of the norms and rules of society o is socialized o Different approach to politics  justice is the laws and rules that people create together o virtue is pure convention  talks about Zeus o distribution of virtue  justice is the question of politics and what is justice  justice brings society together  everyone must have the capacity to enquire knowledge and justice  punish rational beings o who know the rules o and are responsible o practice of education  lack of virtue is a lack of knowledge  The REPUBLIC 9/11/2012 8:33:00 AM Most famous dialogue; Plato’s Republic  Socrates was Plato’s teacher  not just mind  Socrates; famous trial o accused too teaching skepticism to criticizing the young gods o was convicted o refused to defend himself o teacher of young aristocratic men o the life of Socrates is important background for Plato’s republic o Socrates represents deep tension ; philosophy and political authority  re-trial of Socrates  Socrates goes down to democracy Republic Book 1  Background and setting of the republic o The life and death of Socrates o the republic in Plato’s work o Plato and Socrates  opening Dramatic Action o Socrates n the Piraeus- the democratic area of Athens o Keflalis  old wealthy merchant  he disappears from the scene  doesn’t have the patience to think  philosophy; logic philosophy  justice appears  justice is given to each one that owes  seems like a question of property (justice) o Socrates detained by Polemarchus by force - political philosophy  is the village idiot (Polemarchus)  giving benefits to friends and harm to enemies  producing formulas of what justice is  trying to find the answer of justice  it is not knowledge in Socrates eyes  need so other kind of knowledge out of conventional thinking o Persimicus  Justice is the advantage of the stronger  hostile, crude; justice is a standard is an illusion  justice a feature of politics  laws reflects the rules the rulers make to stay in power  rule and organization of a city  power  independent rational principles; denying that  Logic to argue o Socrates makes arguments against
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