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McMaster University
Political Science
Nibaldo Galleguillos

MODERNIZATION THEORIES PREMISE: Technological creativity precedes capital formation. Innovation before capitalism. Can an entrepreneurial attitude become universal? ANTECEDENTS:  Auguste Comte’s Positivism  Max Weber’s The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism (elective affinity)  Talcott Parsons’s Pattern Variables TRADITIONAL SOCIETY > > > > > > > > > > >MODERN SOCIETY transition change differentiation progress development Development is an irreversible, one- directional, unilinear, evolutionary voyage from traditional to modern society  continual theory; claim was that how much people will try individuals will always evolve; constantly progressing Modernization is the process of transition from traditional to modern principles of social organization  The Continuum Theory  The Diffusion Theories o Material Aid: Trickle Down theories o Intellectual Aid: Oil Spot Theories  The End of Ideology Theory  The Theories of Political Development: the Optimistic Equation Traditional Modern Ascription Achievement Particularism Universalism Affectivity Affectively Neutral Diffusiveness Specificity Extended family Nuclear family Low social mobility High social mobility Agriculture based Industry & Services Undifferentiated political Highly differentiated structures political structures Traditional authority Rational-legal authority President Kennedy’s Alliance for Progress: The Optimistic Equation 1) Economic Growth > 2) Social Modernization > 3) Modern Wo/Man > 4) Political Moderation 5)Participatory representative liberal democracy (institutionalization)  Rockefeller Report (1971)  By the end of the 1960s, rather than representative democracy Latin America was populated by military regimes  The Revolution of Rising Expectations  The Iranian Case Study  The Chilean case Study Criticisms to Modernization Theories:  Ahistorical  Atomistic  Ethnocentric (Westernization rather than Modernization)  Unable to explain how change occur (evolutionary)  Apology for Capitalism  Conservative, favouring gradual change over radical structural transformation: (“the goal of reform is to prevent revolution”)  The Politics of Order: bending over backward to justify authoritarian regimes Barrington Moore’s Social Origins of Dictatorsh
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