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McMaster University
Political Science
Richard Stubbs

S EPTEMBER 26, 2013 Modernization theory & Development  Correlation – cannot have democracy unless there‟s economic, social and individual development  Capitalism and Democracy; o There were no democracy before the expansion and consolidation of capitalism o Long established economies are all democracies; o Correlation that is accepted from right to left;  Right – way in which historical development occurs; need economic growth and development in order to practice democracy  Left – democracy is one way to disguise and to hide the fact that there‟s a greater degree of inequality; although everyone is „equal‟ on the surface because people have the right to vote  Modernization built on pluralist theories of democracy o Correlation – economic growth; o Parliamentary democracy; o As countries in the developed world began to do what modernization theories were advocating;  Assumption that all countries needed is the infusion of foreign capital; to get their economies started; accept capital from the outside; material aid that industrialized countries have been providing for so long to these „developing‟ countries; o If modernization involved the development of a new and a new woman;  Educational aid;  Modernization theories tend to assume that societies are constantly „evolving‟ – change; differentiation; development; assumes that are uni- linear; one directional road; that all societies have been traditional;  Diffusion – material and intellectual AID  “Trickle down theory”  “Put some capital and make an investment” this investment will spread and affect the rest of society  Intellectual  Modernize educational system; that were operating in the middle ages;  “Oil Spot theory”  Knowledge is like a little drop of oil that you drop and then it spreads;  To become the great contributors;  Degree of modernization began to take place as education was extrapolated;  Beginning the process of extensifing and deeping industrialization; change educational system; o Unexpected outcomes began to occur;  As people get an education; illiterate become literate;  Fundamental structural progress that can explain their underdevelopment; as people become more knowledgeable;  IRAN 1963 SHAH of IRAN o Military Coup;  The shah became the poster boy for modernization theory;  Iranians were being paid by the Shah to go and study abroad;  The main beneficiaries were the main opponent; E VOLUTIONARY R ISE OF E DUCATION ;  Large amount of people who are well educated; but who have limited opportunities;  Degree of frustration; o Frustration lead to violence o Violence leads to revolution?  Rather than arriving at the end of a process of modernization including industrialization; o Most of these governments end up with Military Governments; LATIN AMERICA o Recurrence of Military Coups – 1964; o C
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