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Political Science 2XX3 - September 9-September24 Notes.doc

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Department
Political Science
Course
POLSCI 2XX3
Professor
Richard Stubbs
Semester
Fall

Description
Political Science 2th3 th 1 Lecture Notes September 9 – September 24 , 2013 T ABLE OF C ONTENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS...............................................................................1 MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 9, 2013.................................................................2 M ODERNIZATION THEORIES............................................................................2 DEPENDENCY THEORY ...................................................................................2 BOTH THEORIES..........................................................................................2 RESEARCH Q UESTION/ OUTLIN.......................................................................2 TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 10, 2013...............................................................3 O RIGINS OF DEVELOPMENT STUDIES.................................................................3 DEVELOPING C OUNTRIES...............................................................................4 THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 12, 2013............................................................4 OUTLINE.................................................................................................4 ASSUMPTIONS IN EARLY DEVELOPMENT THEORIES...................................5 50 YEARS OF DEVELOPMENT ..........................................................................6 M AIN ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT THEORIES..........................................................7 SEPTEMBER 16, 2013..............................................................................7 O NT RADE:................................................................................................7 THREE THEORIES OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT;.......................................8 DISPROVING COMPARATIVE ADVANTAGE .............................................................8 SEPTEMBER 19, 2013..............................................................................9 THIRD WORLD COUNTRIES DO NOT GAIN FROM TRADE ............................................9 SECULAR D ETERIORATION OFTERMS OF TRADE ...................................................9 COMPARATIVE ADVANTAGE DOES NOT WORK ....................................................10 “D ON’TLINK TRADE TO OTHER ISSUES”.........................................................10 VICIOUS CIRCLES OF POVERT;......................................................................11 SEPTEMBER 22, 2013............................................................................11 VICIOUS CIRCLES OF POVERT.......................................................................11 1950’ S PEOPLE PRESENTED WITH TWO ALTERNATIVE;........................................12 SEPTEMBER 24, 2013............................................................................13 PROBLEM: ............................................................................................13 CAUSES :.................................................................................................13 THEORIES OF ECONOMIC STAGES – WALT ROSTOW ;.............................................13 W ALT ROSTOW ’S STAGES OF ECONOMIC GROWTH...............................................14 CAPITALIST PROCESS OF INDUSTRIALIZATI.....................................................15 DEVIATION –OF STAGES IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIE............................................15 Political Science 2XX3 2 Lecture Notes September 9 – September 24 , 2013 M ONDAY , S EPTEMBER 9, 2013 Developing / Global South M ODERNIZATION THEORIES • Lack of development / failure of these countries to develop economically, socially, culturally, as a result of individual personalities • It is the way they are that explains why these countries cannot have ‘democratic regimes’ o Bloody personalities that explains why these are always at war with each other o Modernization theory tries to point at some deficit D EPENDENCY THEORY • Explains the counterargument against modernization theory • People’s behavior cannot be attributed to their individual personality • Behavior determined by the structures o World capitalist system o It is not the traditional way that explains the lack of development, but because they’re part of a world capitalist system that works for the advantage of some and the disadvantage of others • Human nature is a constant and people in different parts of the world behave differently, but not because they’re intrinsically different but the structures where people have to make choices are different. B OTH THEORIES 1. Different understanding of human nature 2. ‘Modernization’ theory – Assume that people in different parts of the world behave differently because they tend to be different from each other 3. CONDITIONS vs. BEHAVIOR Politika – Greeks “Politics is the means by which good citizens can also become good men” – Moralistic, than realistic Politics is the study of the unexpected and anticipated/premeditated consequences or outcomes of human actions • Why things never work the way politicians thought they should work • History • Why do we need to know history? Through history we begin to realize how politics is the study of people making the same mistake again and again, never learning from history. R ESEARCH Q UESTION / OUTLINE Question form with a declarative sentence. I.E “… in this paper, I examine __________________________ in ______________, and why this does not go away…” • Evidence • To account for the problem that has been stated • What causes corruption? What causes _____________? Political Science 2XX3 3 th th Lecture Notes September 9 – September 24 , 2013 • Analysis, arguments, conclusions T UESDAY , S EPTEMBER 10, 2013 O RIGINS OF DEVELOPMENT STUDIES ♣ President Harry Truman’s Inaugural Address (1948) o Public statement pertaining what would be known as the ‘developing world’ o The united States had the responsibility to help those who benefited less than what the US was enjoying at that particular time o On top of the world USA – US Economy grew exponentially after the second world war o Instrumental at the conclusion of the WWII  Establishment of the United Nations (Article 1: created in order to avoid the kind of conflict which had characterized the second world war, where 40mil+ had been killed) ♣ The creation of the United Nations and the Anti-colonial discourse o The United Nations and the USA made it clear to European power (who were devastated) that the US and UN would not support any attempt on the part of the European power to recolonize their former colonies, for those who had been lost as part of the Second World II, supporting the movement for national independence. o There were oppositions and rejection from parts of the European powers to even consider giving independence to some of the colonies. ♣ Concerns about the ideological directions of the anti-colonial movements o Lead to the emergence of the so-called National Liberation Movements in countries like Algeria and Kenya. o People began to wage war against the colonizers. o 1954 Vietnam VS France (Only to be substituted by the US) o French defeated in Algeria in 1960s o Fidel Castro & Che Guevara defeated a US supported Military regime at the time. o As the United States and UN supported national independence they became concerned with the movement of national liberation; most of these movements of national liberation were showing strong predisposition to support radical ideas such as Marxism and communism. o What about Iran in 1954? Nationalization of Oil from UK/US involvement o African leaders were also talking about the need for African Socialism. Political Science 2XX3 4 th th Lecture Notes September 9 – September 24 , 2013 o Americans were supporting National Liberation but concerned with the movement of communism and Marxism… as they weren’t adopting Capitalist and Democratic ideas o What is it that prompts people in these countries to fall to support these radical revolutionary ideas? The core and periphery argument, where by those in the core were extracting resources from those in periphery (in less developed countries); the extraction of resources, the way in which Americans in Cuba had turned devaluated Cuba.  People’s poverty makes us question ♣ Concerns with poverty as the root cause of radical and revolutionary ideologies o Extreme form of poverty that prompts people to fall under the spell of these communist/socialist/Marxist ideas o If the cause of Non-Western people’s radicalism is poverty, then the solution to the problem is quite simple… o If the problem is an economic one, whom could you bring in to bring? Economics…  Problem with bringing the UN/Banks/Structural Adjustment programs is that these affect the structural dynamics of these countries. Furthermore, these countries also fall into debt. It was just to eliminate the radicalism, not to eliminate the poverty that was causing this radicalism.  Every major initiative by these will make the claims “to invest, to create productive activities that eliminate poverty”… but the rationale. ♣ Strategic value of fight against poverty: Not as an end in itself but as a means to an end (stop radical ideologies: “The end of Ideologies”.) D EVELOPING C OUNTRIES • Perception of “Liberal Democracy” in developed countries as more of an ideal rather than a reality o Western Liberal democracy: Conditions and requirements in which they are absent can help us understand why “liberal democracy” does not work in these countries. • What are the fundamental premises of Western Liberal Democracy o Capitalism and economic development (Western Liberal Democracy) o There was no democracy before the emergence of ‘Capitalism’ o Question: How can there be democracy with the values of “equality” when there is capitalism? Which entails us to have inequality in economic means. T HURSDAY , S EPTEMBER 12, 2013 OUTLINE Political Science 2XX3 5 Lecture Notes September 9 – September 24 , 2013 Proposal should be in sentence form, rather than form point. In it’s origins the field of development studies became concerned why people in the third world tend to be radicals, militant, revolutionaries that favor change. • Why is radicalism perceived as a support of soviet ideas and a rejection of western liberal democracies • If poverty is real or imaged the cause of third world people radicalism, people third world radicalism, by eliminating it’s cause, which is poverty. • If we want to succeed to making third world people more amenable to western ideas, we have to address the problem. • If the problem is an economic one, then we need to bring in the specialists in eliminating poverty • Social scientists who became concerned with development (economists) o If the problem is an economic one, bring in economists. o Development studies talk in economic terms o Economists come into the picture and come with a number of assumptions, a number of premises and generally reflecting what they knew about the time of when a society can move from being rural to being industrialized society ASSUMPTIONS IN EARLY DEVELOPMENT THEORIES • Dualism/ Dual societies (J. Lambert) o Economies back then and even today claimed that third world countries are dual societies. rd o Dual societies; the claim made that within 3 world country (Brazil e.g.) one can find two distinctive societies; one which is modern prosperous and the other one which is bad, traditional, non industrialized (under developed). o Make claims that there are two Brazils within Brazil. o The assumption being that the modern sector to be found was being held back (arrested) in it’s effort to continue to develop by the traditional, underdeveloped sector; couldn’t develop. o Common perception, illusion of the concrete. o Exposure to two different kinds of societies. • Capitalist logic as most effective way to bring about development (What is capitalism?) o If poverty was going to be eradicated, then needed to adopt the most appropriate strategy. (Assumption) o Adopt the capitalist way, follow the capitalist way and all good things will come to you. o Discourse that continues to these days; continues to be preached the need to adopt capitalist economics.  Cannot argue against success, when development studies began. When we start this discussion, at the end of the second world war, the US was on top of the world, the most developed economically, politically, socially, culturally, anywhere to be found in this time.  After Second World War the United States was the ‘perfect’ society, capitalism goes a long way to explain why the United States is and was on top of the world. Quite rightly the US capitalist economist have proven themselves beyond the US • Western Europe and Japan were ravaged as a result of the Second World War. • 1948 President Truman launched the first major and largest international AID program. The Marshal plan, a plan geared to bring about the reconstruction the Japanese economies destroyed by the War. 2 billion Political Science 2XX3 6 Lecture Notes September 9 – September 24 , 2013 dollars, the Marshall plan implied bringing the economic way of the United States. • MARSHALL PLAN: to export capitalism; we cannot argue against success. Was not particularly geared to bring the Europeans out of the poverty. The main Goal of the Marshall plan; geopolitical and geostrategic to ensure that those people did not fall into communist / socialist / Marxist ideas. These countries were impoverished and were very close to becoming part of the soviet ideas. War against poverty has alternative motivations. We care about poverty not because of poverty itself, but because of something else. • Whatever we might think about capitalist economics; it has one virtue, it works it makes possible the reconstruction of all of these countries at this particular time. • Development will occur by an increase of the gross national product (GNP) o Assumption that continues to these days, if you follow the classification that the United Nations such as the World Bank; ranks countries on the basis of the GNP. In those days back in the 1950s’ any country higher than 300 GNP will be labeled developed country. o Classification of countries or societies based on their capital income. • Equality of opportunity o Reflection of the confidence the US and UN organization had that what the US had accomplished was easy to replicate, imitate and repeat. o All that countries needed was to replicate the formula (Capitalism) • Imitation of the successful experience of already advanced societies o You cannot argue with success, if the US was and is the most powerful economy in the world, the US needs to be imitated. These are assumptions; premises economies have in front of them. 50 YEARS OF DEVELOPMENT Trade/Theories of comparative advantages • Property will resolve the physical poverty by countries adopting theories of comparative advantage • Free Trade • The first development was to follow trade, the more open trade will bring about prosperity for everyone Bigger is Better / Industrialization 1950s, 1960s • Forget about trade, industrialize because this is what made possible prosperity • The bigger the investment on industrialization the better • If you are going to attract factories and industries, you need to invest the infrastructure • Need to build sources of energy • 1960s Ghana built the highest Hydroelectric plant in Africa • Brazil 11 billion dollars in building the world’s largest hydroelectric plant, so that it could entice capital to come in • When all of this huge investment did not pan out; Small is beautiful forget huge investments 1970s • Why spend billions of dollars on dams and electric plants when you can build many (small sized) with this money Basic needs approach Political Science 2XX3 7 Lecture Notes September 9 – September 24 , 2013 • No serious bent of poverty in these countries • Poverty was becoming more wide spread? • Forget about trade, industrialization, just do what is needed in order to feed your own people who are starving, meet people’s basic needs, redirection of emphasis towards agricultural sector to feed many people who were starving during these days. Appropriate Technology • Whatever development efforts should include technology that is appropriate to the conditions within these countries • Rather than providing capital-intensive technologies, should develop technologies that create jobs rather than diminish them. In the West we have machines to do jobs for people; • Must reflect the kind of societies o Developing countries have abundant workers Globalization/ Neoliberal economics • Old economic theory that has been resurrected in order to meet new demands of capitalist forces • Neo liberal economic models • We are at the time in which we are preaching that countries should adopt neo-liberal economics; old liberalism of the 19 century… back to more trade, o Even though we already know that when you preach trade, it failed to produce the outcome that was anticipated Sustainable Development M AIN ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT THEORIES Whatever we do today should ensure that we provide opportunities for the generations to follow; 1. Theories of comparative advantage; a. David Ricardo b. Paul Samuelson c. Theories of Free Trade 2. Theories of vicious circles of poverty Ragnar Nurske; problems of capital formation underdeveloped countries, 1957 Premised on per capita income assumptions; 3. Theories of stages of economic growth a. One of the most well known approaches; put forth by US economies b. How can countries develop economically; c. Walt W. Rostwo; The stages of economic growth; a non-communist manifesto S EPTEMBER 16, 2013 O N T RADE : Theories on comparative advantage David Ricardo, Paul Samuelson 1. Countries need to specialize in the production, and then export, those commodities they can produce cheaply and more efficiently, and then exchange or trade them for those commodities other countries can produce and export likewise 2. Outcome – The theory claims that everyone involved in this trade will experience a rise in income; income can then be used to improve local people’s conditions, in the end, trade brings about an equalization of condition amongst all those involved. 3. Main assumption: Open competition; Political Science 2XX3 8 Lecture Notes September 9 – September 24 , 2013 THREE THEORIES OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT; • Theories of comparative advantage; globalization; free trade • The promotion of the belief that people’s countries, economies, etc. that engage in trade will have a greater opportunity to improve economically and thus diminish the level of poverty and as a result the radicalism of its people; • Stated first by Scottish Economist (David Ricardo 1809) put forward the idea that countries should specialize in the production of those goods and commodities that they can produce more efficiently and cheaply, and then trade these commodities with other countries; o It’s economically irrational for England (cold country) to produce textiles; while at the same time trying to produce wine. o Irrational for Portugal (in addition to the wine it produces); to try to produce textiles; it could be better for England to specialize in textiles and forget about the production of wine and then they could exchange. o Economics is a rational science and then it should be rationally and logically, which involves countries doing what they want to do better; • 1950’s theories of comparative advantages complemented by the contributions of an American economist (Paul Samuelson) o What is needed for these third world countries (developing countries) to do is to take advantage of what they have in abundance; what is needed is an international division of labor; visualized in the following manners;  Countries that have the advantage in the production of finished / manufactured / goods.  Much of the rest of the world is in a stage where they’ve been trying to industrialize, but they have natural resources, agricultural products that can then be exported for the manufactured goods; • Globalization / Free trade is what is supposed to be all about; Comparative advantage and theories
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