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September26-October9 Lecture Notes Political Science 2XX3.docx

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Department
Political Science
Course
POLSCI 2XX3
Professor
Richard Stubbs
Semester
Fall

Description
September 26 - October 21, 2013 1 Political Science 2XX3 T ABLE OF C ONTENTS SEPTEMBER 26, 2013........................................................................................................................................... 3 ROSTOW;.................................................................................................................................................................................3 O UTCOME OF FOREIGN CAPITAL;IF ALLOWED....................................................................................................................3 INTERNAL D EFENSE&D EVELOPMENT .................................................................................................................................3 SIX DECADES OF DEVELOPMENT .............................................................................................................................................4 MODERNIZATIONTHEORIES..........................................................................................................................................4 1) PREMISE:.......................................................................................................................................................................4 SEPTEMBER 30, 2013........................................................................................................................................... 5 ANTECEDENTS :..........................................................................................................................................................................5 2) TALCOTTPARSON’SS TRUCTURAL FUNCTIONALISM ..........................................................................................5 3) M AXW EBER S.................................................................................................................................................................6 4) AUGUSTE COMTE ’SPOSITIVISM....................................................................................................................................6 OCTOBER 1,2013.................................................................................................................................................... 7 T ALCOTTP ARSONS’PATTERN VARIABLES...........................................................................................................................7 D ICHOTOMIES OFTALCOTT .....................................................................................................................................................7 THEORIES................................................................................................................................................................................8 The Continuum Theory...........................................................................................................................................................8 The Diffusion Theories –........................................................................................................................................................8 Material Aid: Trickle Down theories................................................................................................................................8 Intellectual Aid: Oil Spot Theories –.................................................................................................................................9 The End of Ideology Theory..................................................................................................................................................9 The Theories of Political Development: the Optimistic Equation.......................................................................9 G. O’Donnell’s criticism of Political Development Views:........................................................................................9 President Kennedy’s Alliance for Progress: The Optimistic Equation..............................................................9 OCTOBER 3, 2013................................................................................................................................................... 9 M ODERNIZATION THEORIES AND POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT ...........................................................................................9 W HY DID THIS NOT WORK AS EXPECTE............................................................................................................................10 T HER EVOLUTION OFR ISINE XPECTATIONS...................................................................................................................10 The Iranian Case Study........................................................................................................................................................10 The Chilean case Study........................................................................................................................................................11 R OCKEFELLER REPORT (1971)..........................................................................................................................................12 OCTOBER 7, 2013.................................................................................................................................................12 Literacy Campaigns..............................................................................................................................................................12 C RITICISMS TM ODERNIZATION THEORIES:...................................................................................................................12 B ARRINGTON M OORE’SSOCIALO RIGINS ODICTATORSHIP ANDD EMOCRACY:R OADS TOM ODERNIZATION ARE NOT UNI-DIRECTIONAL.THREE TYPES OF MODERNIZATION:.........................................................................................14 OCTOBER 15, 2013..............................................................................................................................................14 Shifts analysis from that of individual /societal culture to the view of a single, unified world capitalist economic system................................................................................................................................................14 Claim: world capitalism created the conditions of underdevelopment, and maintains it in existence to this day..................................................................................................................................................................................14 Claim: Development of a handful of metropolitan economies directs, determines, and distorts the development of a larger number of satellite economies......................................................................................14 PARADIGMCHANGE INDEPENDENCYTHEORY..................................................................................................14 September 26 - October 21, 2013 2 Political Science 2XX3 Claim: “The one and the same historical process of the emergence, expansion, and consolidation of capitalism throughout the world has simultaneously generated, and continues to generate, both economic development as well as structural underdevelopment”..................................................................15 Claim: Development and underdevelopment are the opposite faces of the same coin, rather than sequentially related stages of growth..........................................................................................................................15 Claim: Advanced countries were never underdeveloped although they might have been undeveloped..............................................................................................................................................................................15 Claim: stages of economic development that matter are those of the world capitalist economic system, and not those of one single country..............................................................................................................15 Claim: Since the world capitalist system is a hierarchical order, the idea that underdeveloped countries can catch-up to the developed ones is just an illusion.....................................................................15 Claim: the world capitalist economic system is based on the inequality of its members, where exploitation occurs in two ways:.....................................................................................................................................15 Dependency: THEOTONIO DO SANTO.......................................................................................................................16 FORMS OF SURPLUS EXTRACTION (EXPLOITATION ’).......................................................................................................16 THE DIFFERENT APPROACHES TO D EPENDENCY :.............................................................................................................16  ECLA: Capitalist development is possible under better, fair terms of trade.......................................16  F.H. Cardoso: “Associated-dependent development”. External dependency can be negotiated, even if under subservient forms.......................................................................................................................................16  A.G. Frank: “Development of Underdevelopment”. No development is possible under the current structural conditions of the world capitalist economic system.......................................................16 DEPENDENCY :F ORMS OF SURPLUS EXTRACTION (EXPLOITATION )..............................................................................17 OCTOBER 17, 2013..............................................................................................................................................18 FRANK ’S HYPOTHESIS .........................................................................................................................................................19 ORIGINS OF THE D EPENDENCY S CHOOL :A S A REACTION AGAINST :.............................................................................20 OCTOBER 21, 2013..............................................................................................................................................20 CRITICISMS TO A.G.F RANK ’S MODEL :................................................................................................................................20 September 26 - October 21, 2013 3 Political Science 2XX3 S EPTEMBER 26, 2013 ROSTOW; Beginning with the classical model of industrial development – land reform has always been a requisite for the process of industrialization to take place. - If do not have capital because of the consumption; - Next is to let foreign capital in; O UTCOME OF F OREIGN C APITAL ; IF ALLOWED 1. Labor extremism goes away 2. Armed forces more professional a. Equal investment should be made into strengthening the conditions; by creating a more stable society b. Making the armed forces less interventionist and more professional? c. Retraining of the armed forces in Latin America; as they become more professional in overthrowing less the civilians and government… 3. A large middle class would arise a. Middle class would lead to a more moderate landscape in their political views b. Alliance for progress; cannot begin the process of industrialization unless changes take 4. Peasants would become farmerslations of production in the country side needed to be changed; a. Denouncing the traditional land owners; b. KENNEDY “Those who make peaceful revolution impossible will make violent revolution inevitable” c. In addition for justifying the need to provide capital; Vietnam and an increasing emphasis on the militarization of the Latin American armies; 5. Radical ideologies, such as communism (a “disease of the transition) would lose their appeal a. Why should we help people in other countries? Foreign aid? Advice? Expertise? In order to eliminate the radicalism that is caused by Poverty. b. Communism would no longer be appealing to people who are experiencing an improvement in their economic lifestyle. During the transition; foreign capital would make a difference in development; between an UPWARD change and a DOWNWARD spiral of economic decay.  Addressing poverty by providing third world countries with what they lack; CAPITAL;  To the drive of maturity; into a mass consumption society;  Rostow was called to deal with the perceived threat of greater revolution in the Latin American continent following the 1969 Cuban Revolution; o Cuba managed to overthrow a regime and adopt a socialist communist strategic model; o President Kennedy were concerned with the example that Fidel Castro‟s revolution could exert on the rest of Latin America and the rest of the world;  The problem is that people are becoming revolutionary because of poverty; ensure that they develop economically, by providing capital? In this transition, foreign capital will be crucial; America launched the second largest foreign aid program?  Provide with capital and there will be a decline in the extremism of the working class? INTERNAL D EFENSE &D EVELOPMENT September 26 - October 21, 2013 4 Political Science 2XX3 Development and Internal defense; how do we stop the revolution movement in these different countries; Guerillas; Alliance for Progress  To stop revolutionary movements on their heels/ tracks S IX DECADES OF DEVELOPMENT a) Trade as solution/theories of comparative advantages b) Bigger is better/Industrialization c) Small is beautiful d) Basic needs approach e) Appropriate technology f) Globalization/Neoliberal economics g) Sustainable development h) Millennium Goals/Partnerships  More poor people today than when these first came out  Haven‟t seen much improvement; whether countries have adopted theories and policies; whether to follow Rostow‟s approach. We are at the point in history where we can see that poverty is more widespread than ever before.  Rate of poverty has declined? Consider population growth; there are more poor people in absolute number;  1.4 Billion people live with > 1.25 MODERNIZATION THEORIES 1)PREMISE: Technological creativity precedes capital formation. Innovation is before capitalism. Can entrepreneurial attitudes become universal? These were not working as expected because they were being met with a number of obstacles; that needed to be removed in order for theories to work. Obstacles  Individual values, behavior, attitudes, personalities, cultures, etc.  CULTURE – social psychological development and underdevelopment o Attribute underdevelopment; o What culture presented itself as a barrier?  Traditional cultures;  Traditional values, etc. all of which are different to those of the „developed‟ culture  Modern versus traditional  Explain why behavior interferes with the workings  How can societies change? How can we bring about transformation? (Sociologist, etc.)  Capital has been preceded by individual changes within their culture; capitalist for whatever reason emerged in European 1400s and characterized by an individual who was opposed to „tradition‟ September 26 - October 21, 2013 5 Political Science 2XX3 o Capitalist is the first one who will question; appropriation of the production; o Individual willing to challenge tradition; innovator; creator and inventor; one who will not be limited by the confines of the manor who wants to move elsewhere to continue the process of accumulation; o Why did this innovator emerge in Europe and not elsewhere? Can this entrepreneurial experience be extrapolated? Transferred to other parts of the world? Universal requirement for economic growth? o Modernization deals with aspects with cultures of people in many third world countries; S EPTEMBER 30, 2013 “Individual who makes capitalism possible” - Apology of this mythical character and personality of the „capitalist‟ - Great social changes that began to emerge at the end of the middle ages; challenging the social system that have existed from the collapse of the roman empires until the 16 century; which was a society governed by „irrational‟ forces; o Governed by the „church‟ o Secularist movement; concerned with bringing about what religion did not provide during these days. ANTECEDENTS : 2)TALCOTT PARSON‟S S TRUCTURAL F UNCTIONALISM  How we moved from Agrarian to Industrial societies  Traditional into becoming a different type of society;  To a „modern‟ society  Moved away from an explanation of individual personalities to  STRUCTURES o Social systems; society as a social system; o Could provide a compelling explanation of how societies go about transitioning and evolving at one point being traditional, to another instance to modern; o US (Agrarian)  Most advanced industrial power in the world;  Change occurs by some important variations in individuals personalities;  Different kinds of societies  DIFFERENT PERSONALITIES;  Distinctive traits of the American personality are missing or absent in other people because of their cultures? Adopting traits, values, beliefs, behaviors and patterns of behavior that characterize a modern society. Traditional Modern Ascription Achievement Particularism Universalism “Biased treatment” “Impartial” not lead to treat other people on the basis of „biases‟ - BS Affectivity Affectively Neutral Diffusiveness Specificity Extended family Nuclear Family September 26 - October 21, 2013 6 Political Science 2XX3 Low social mobility High Social Mobility Agriculture based Industry & Services Undifferentiated political strucHighly Differentiated Political Structures Traditional authority Rational-legal sources of authority 3)M AX W EBER ‟S  Protestant ethic and spirit of capitalism (Elective affinity)  Countries in religions who are more concerned with the afterlife are less „capitalist‟  Why was England the first society to leave behind feudal society and to become the first superpower in the world? o Religious understanding; o Protestant VS other kind of religions o Elective affinity in a particular kind of religion and economic growth/prosperity and modernity that follows; o Elective affinity is that between the religion of England (Protestant) and the correlation that it has with capital growth; o Out of the protestant faith; there is the production of this character; unique risk taker; innovator; a type of personality that is not to be found in other societies where religion is more concerned the afterlife; VS the tangible life on this earth; o Protestant more materialistic? Protestant theory of pre-destination? More concerned with doing the things that could lead to good life on this earth. o Did not say that this was a direct correlation; o Modernization theories; if this experience has succeeded it could be transferred to other parts of the world; single phenomenon into a universal law; o “Modernization” that the problem is the people; o Catholicism goes to explain the underdevelopment of Latin America; and Africa; but not entirely true; France is a Catholic country and it industrialized and modernized in the late 18 century. o When Weber says that he sees an elective affinity; modernization theory looks at Weber‟s thought; elective affinity NOT DIRECT CORRELATION; 4)A UGUSTE C OMTE ‟S P OSITIVISM Three stages of human mind development, scientific rationality (observation, experimentation and comparison) applied to the study of society  Invented the word “sociology”  Le „cours‟ de la sociologie;  French Revolution; recognition of their rights; over threw government based on religion;  1789 declaration; „All men are born equal‟  Everyone should have the same opportunity; - bringing about some significant degree of anarchy; violence; - HUMAN EXPERIENCE & MIND 1. The beginning of the human experience and human mind works within a framework that is METAPHYSICAL & ABSTRACT (philosophers) 2. Middle Ages  The world of the human mind went through a second stage; “RELIGIOUS or FICTICIOUS”  Irrational, abstract and fictitious; 3. Conclusion of the Middle Ages  Social scientists borrowed from the physical scientists the scientific method – POSITIVE STAGE - Everything can be explained scientifically; “capitalist” who emerged in the 1400s and 1500s made these claims September 26 - October 21, 2013 7 Political Science 2XX3 - Ideas of private property; “the fruits of my work should belong to me” – John Locke; O CTOBER 1,2013 T ALCOTT P ARSONS ‟ P ATTERN V ARIABLES TRADITIONAL MODERN SOCIETY SOCIETY Transition Change Differentiation Progress Development Development is an irreversible, one- directional, unilinear, evolutionary voyage from traditional to modern society - Societies are constantly moving from being traditional to modern - If can demonstrate that societies are different from today than from yesterday; - Development is the traversing/role and transition - Progress is unidirectional, unilinear; - One cannot stop progress; so when political bandits; D ICHOTOMIES OF T ALCOTT - Origin and then an arrival point to where societies will eventually get if they undergo and experience these changes that are needed. - Ideal „types‟ in order to characterize the two societies; the distinctive features of a traditional society are in stark contrast with a modern society; - Parsons and the “Class room” o Teacher is the representative of the adult society o In the school you will be treated based on the performance; based on impartial criteria; the teacher starts the process of changing the way in which you related to other people; o Tested and evaluated on the basis of academic performance; - TRADITIONAL SOCIETY – Particularistic Model o Contrast to Universalism; is supposed to be the norm; o “Labeling” continuation of belief; teacher labeling in educational system; - Diffusiveness & Specificity – o Reflection of modernity in the western World; reference to the role in the division of label since the emergence of capitalist economics; o Traditional – Diffusiveness; social roles are not separated; o Specificity – Distinction of labour; everyone has a specific role; “teacher” will not do plumbing; etc. - Extended Family vs. nuclear family o Rationality of the family; o Traditional – likes to have as many children as possible; contrast with what the modern society in nuclear family (modern society) o Traditional – if want to modernize and have a better standard of living, need to stop having children? Population explosion; September 26 - October 21, 2013 8 Political Science 2XX3 - Low social and spatial mobility VS High Social and Spatial Mobility - Stratified society VS to differentiated occupational system o Modern – Open societies; no matter where you are born you can move up the social ladder (b.s.) - Primary Activities VS Industrial and Services o Modern societies – manufacturing goods; which have been left behind, but today‟s most important activity is the provision of services; - Undifferentiated Political Structures & Highly differentiated political structures o In modern societies political structures are characterized by the separation of power;  Executive, legislative, judiciary o Traditional society; we will find that these distinctions does not exist because the king and ruler is the law maker; and adjudicator; king passes, executes and implements law; - Traditional sources of authority VS Rational Legal sources of Authority o Traditional societies – do not challenge the sources of Authority o Modern societies – is based on a „rational‟ legal basis, the rule of law‟ constitution that establishes the separation of power; mechanisms that will determine who will be the head of state; Modernization is the process of transition from traditional to modern principles of social organization PROBLEM: o Assumes that we are constantly evolving and does not explain how change occurs; how could one accelerate this transition from tradition to modernity? How can we influence the rate of transformation? - SOLUTION: o In order to accelerate social change; material aid is needed. Material aid means the assumption that these countries could not prosper because they lack capital, if they lack capital, they will search and it will bring about benefit; associated with growth and prosperity. o Material aid to be diffused from the NORTH to the SOUTH, from the developed to the underdeveloped; o MATERIAL AID – TRICKLE DOWN APPROACH. If we provide “Brazil” x amount of money so that it can start an automobile sector, out of this there will be other factories that will follow up and everyone will benefit. o How do we change the cultural problems?  INTELLECTUAL AID – Practiced and translated; modernize the education system that was present in most third world countries; bring modern education and a drop of oil that little education will also spread as the trickle down theory.  Reforming the education system is known as the OIL SPOT THEORY. THEORIES THE C ONTINUUM T HEORY THE D IFFUSION THEORIES – Material aid to be sent from the NORTH to the SOUTH M ATERIAL A ID: TRICKLE D OWN THEORIES September 26 - October 21, 2013 9 Political Science 2XX3 INTELLECTUAL AID: OILSPOT THEORIES – Reforming the educational system. THE E ND OFIDEOLOGY THEORY THE T HEORIES OF POLITICALD EVELOPMENT :THE OPTIMISTIC EQUATION In additional to modernization theories; later in the game, political scientists jump into the game pertaining to Rostow; (Stages of Political Development); how politics also go through stages. - From traditional politics to modern politics; to “liberal democracies” - Democracies; - If you bring about these economic changes there will be social changes taking place which will translate to individual changes; and the final destination will be DEMOCRACY G. O’DONNELL ’S CRITICISM OFPOLITICAL DEVELOPMENT V IEWS: - More socio-economic development = more likelihood of political democracy (MT) - More socio-economic development = more political pluralisation ± which does not necessarily result in more likelihood of political democracy - In the end, political authoritarianism and not political democracy is the most likely outcome of highest levels of modernization and industrialization - There is an elective affinity between industrialization and military rule PRESIDENT K ENNEDY ’SALLIANCE FOR P ROGRESS : HE O PTIMISTICEQUATION 1) Economic Growth 2) Social Modernization 3) Modern Woman/Man 4) Political Moderation 5) Participatory representatdemocracy (institutionalization) O CTOBER 3, 2013 M ODERNIZATION T HEORIES AND P OLITICAL DEVELOPMENT 1) Economic Growth – Incorporation into the world economic system via capitalist market forces. Urbanization – Economic growth will bring SOCIAL MODERNIZATION 2) Social modernization – Educational expansion, information accessibility, geographic mobility. Professional bureaucracy. a. FOREIGN AID programs invest heavily in transforming the educational system in developing countries; b. North American type of „education‟ c. Expansion of Mass Media - better informed? Not so much… d. Geographic mobility – Movement (future oriented) one of the important components of a society that is beginning to change and to differentiate itself. e. Professional bureaucracy – state intervention (larger bureaucracy): if it‟s going to contribute to economic development, then professionalism must be instilled. (How does this work within the confines of the Washington Consensus? Where state intervention is not something that is done) f.Contrasting dichotomies; INDIVIDUAL MODERNIZATION September 26 - October 21, 2013 10 Political Science 2XX3 3) Individual modernization – Universalism. Achievement. Future oriented. New Woman/Man a. Belief in the New man or New Woman who will bring about development b. As individuals become more education and better informed and begin to benefit from the economic growth that is beginning to take place; POLITICAL MODERATION 4) Political moderation – Material improvement causes loss of political radicalism a. They will begin to loose the political radicalism that was worrying the Western hemisphere; b. Begin the process of economic growth  education  modern outlook  More moderate political views, then you can anticipate politically moderate people will support liberal democracies rather than revolutionary regimes. c. Reform seen as an ANTIDOTE TO REVOLUTIONARY THEOLOGY; 5) Establishment of a representative democratic political system – Liberal democracy Modernization conceived as a necessary condition for the emergence and consolidation of democratic governance “The one and only Revolution is the transition from Tradition to Modernity DEA :ECONOMIC GROWTH WAS PREMISED ON THREE OTHER BELIEVES - Belief that as third world countries begin to experience economic growth and become wealthier and rich, the likelihood of them becoming a democracy will increase o RICHER  MORE DEMOCRATIC - Even if economic growth would not bring this country to become like „us‟; economic growth will have a greater likelihood of becoming political democracy - If compare two developing countries (the one that is wealthier and richer is more likely to become a liberal democracy) - Idea based on the belief to this day; is that there is a POSITIVE correlation between CAPITALISM and DEMOCRACY - There were no democracies before the emergence and consolidation of capitalism; long established democracies (Western democracies) all have in common that they’re all based on a capitalist economy. W HY DID THIS NOT WORK AS EXPECTED - Modernization Theories: - More socio-economic development = more likelihood of political democracy (MT) - More socio-economic development = more political pluralisation ± which does not necessarily result in more likelihood of political democracy - In the end, political authoritarianism and not political democracy is the most likely outcome of highest levels of modernization and industrialization - There is an elective affinity between industrialization and military rule T HE R EVOLUTION OF R ISING E XPECTATIONS THE IRANIAN C ASE STUDY - King of Kings (Shah) realized that his kingdom needed to be reformed and modernized and grow to the 20 century. The Shah (friend of President Kennedy); began the process of bringing about modernization to a 5,000 year old civiliz
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