Started on: 11/25/2013 5:37:00 AM
C LASS N OTES FOR : P OLITICAL S CI 3B03
McMaster University, Fall 2013
M ONDAY , NOVEMBER 25, 2013
PEOPLE OF IMPORTANCE
REGIONALISM & GLOBALIZATION
In Asia and Latin America there are a number of regions and organizations;
Competing regions around the world;
To say that we live in a world of regions, it tends to shape the way in which we look at policies; the way in
which policies are developed;
-At the end of the cold war;
-Relationship with other states was always examined through the prism of the cold war;
- For or against the United States;
- For or against Soviet Communism
- At the end of the Cold war
o “Primary focus of relationships is no longer this bimodal/division down the world of the fault
line of the cold war; emergence of regional leaders;”
o Relationship with neighbors;
- The EU (previously called the European Economic Community) became a model for what a region
should look like, then NAFTA, etc.
o Regions became important and particularly with the advent of globalization; countries /
governments were trying to deal with the forces of globalization, how do deal with the neo-
liberal dimensions of globalization
- The pressure for privatization, liberalization, deregulation, etc. How will this affect our economy?
How do we limit the damage done by globalization?
COMBINING WITH REGIONS (REGIONALIZATION ) MERGENCE
To combine the regions to fight against the forces of globalization
Q. What is a region? Define what this is.
A. A region is a geographic area, which has developed sociocultural links, political links, and economic links
-Every year Euro countries put the best singers/ these are then selected
-Just like tomorrow everyone in Europe will be watching Football…
-Sociocultural links: things like champions league, the European Soccer; the Eurovision song contest
-These sets of linkages distinguish it from the rest of the world
Q. Define a region that distinguish it from the rest of the community
TWO PROCESSES AT WORK
(1) Regionalization (BOTTOM UP) a process by which material patents of transnational transactions;
these can be family linkages; these can be trade; capital; these can be any number of linkages amongst
individuals and groups that link a loosely defined geographic area together;
-Regionalization is taking place between individuals/groups/organizations
-One example of these linkages; Toyota’s Asia International Production Network in 2006 (overhead)
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Fall 2013 Started on: 11/25/2013 5:37:00 AM
--Center in Japan, production in China, India, Thailand, Taiwan, the Philippines, and Malaysia
--Different parts are being produced in different parts of South East Asia; which then are linked
together in a final assembly in Thailand or Japan; depending on the kind of Car. Low-end cars tend to
be produced and final assembly in Taiwan, high-end cars in Japan.
----*These production chains and production networks (value chains); link the region together! Toyota
has plants in all of these different countries
----*Movement of parts across boundaries!
----* Another important factor is the emigration of China to different parts (Philippines, Taiwan,
Malaysia, etc.); these immigrants/emigrants will have linkages through family countries
----*You have transactions across boundaries and this helps bring a region together. BOTTOM-UP
LINKAGES, not GOVERNMENT (Individuals, corporations and Organizations!)
Movement of Japan being the Hub in 1995 and now in 2005 China is the Hub. More evident over
the last 10 years; a hub with a whole bunch of transactions
When Toyota is moving its parts around the region; it does not want to have problems at the
border; it does not want to have high tariffs! What does it do? It goes to these governments to
have the tariffs reduced; making it easier to move products across the borders.
Regionalization producing regions! Governments being pressured by individuals, organizations
(2) Regionalism is a state-led process that produces a definable geographic area by means of
development of specific institutions and strategies.
This is a top-bottom process.
There is nothing natural about regions
- They are produced
- Should Turkey be a member of the European Union?
o Migration has been an issue
o Large economy
o Large population